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Author (up) Asmare, K.; Abebe, R.; Sheferaw, D.; Krontveit, R.I.; Barbara, W. doi  openurl
  Title Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Veterinary Parasitology Abbreviated Journal Vet Parasitol  
  Volume 218 Issue Pages 73-81  
  Keywords Goats; Sheep; Mange; Prevalence; Skin  
  Abstract Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (P<0.05) and explained 32.87% of the explainable proportion of the heterogeneity noted between studies The prevalence was found to be higher in goats in lowland agro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested.  
  Address School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Electronic address: ka7588@yahoo.com. School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Norwegian Medicines Agency, P.O. Box 63, Kalbakken, N-0901 Oslo, Norway. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. 5689 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/02/14  
  ISSN 1873-2550 (Electronic) 0304-4017 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1405 Serial 2867  
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Author (up) Asmare, K.; Sheferaw, D.; Aragaw, K.; Abera, M.; Sibhat, B.; Haile, A.; Kiara, H.; Szonyi, B.; Skjerve, E.; Wieland, B. doi  openurl
  Title Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume 160 Issue Pages 68-77  
  Keywords Sheep; Ovine; Goat; Caprine; Haemonchus; Nematoda; Nematode Infections; Prevalence; Meta analysis  
  Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a major health challenge affecting productive and reproductive performance of sheep and goats in Ethiopia. However, there is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at national level. This systematic review provides pooled prevalence estimates and assesses potential predictors of the nematode infections in small ruminants, i.e. helpful in planning interventions or control strategies. The review used 50 animal level datasets retrieved from 24 manuscripts. The studies used data collected from 9407 sheep and 3478 goats. A meta-analytical approach was employed to analyze Effect size (ES). The reported GI nematodes represented eleven genera affecting sheep and goats including: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia/Ostertagia, Strongyloides, Bunostomum, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Trichuris, Cooperia, Skrjabinema and Oesophagostomum. The GI nematodes pooled prevalence estimate in the random effect model was 75.8% (95% CI: 69.6, 80.8). The subgroup analysis revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in the prevalence between different regions and type of diagnostic methods used. 'Postmortem technique' and 'eastern part of the country' were associated with higher GI nematode prevalence and accounted for 68.1% of the between studies heterogeneity. In light of the high parasitic prevalence in all agro-ecologies, the need for strategic intervention is recommended. Meanwhile, data need to be generated for some of the regions where dependable survey reports are lacking.  
  Address School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Electronic address: ka7588@yahoo.com. School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Ethiopia Research Platform, Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Program, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N- 0033 Oslo, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/05/08  
  ISSN 1873-6254 (Electronic) 0001-706X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar, Cab Direct and African Journals Online searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1424 Serial 2883  
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Author (up) Ayrle, H.; Mevissen, M.; Kaske, M.; Nathues, H.; Gruetzner, N.; Melzig, M.; Walkenhorst, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Medicinal plants--prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Veterianry Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 89  
  Keywords Cattle; Swine; Calves; Piglets; Gastrointestinal diseases; Respiratory diseases  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets lead to significant economic losses in livestock husbandry. A high morbidity has been reported for diarrhea (calves </= 35%; piglets </= 50%) and for respiratory diseases (calves </= 80%; piglets </= 40%). Despite a highly diverse etiology and pathophysiology of these diseases, treatment with antimicrobials is often the first-line therapy. Multi-antimicrobial resistance in pathogens results in international accordance to strengthen the research in novel treatment options. Medicinal plants bear a potential as alternative or additional treatment. Based on the versatile effects of their plant specific multi-component-compositions, medicinal plants can potentially act as 'multi-target drugs'. Regarding the plurality of medicinal plants, the aim of this systematic review was to identify potential medicinal plant species for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and for modulation of the immune system and inflammation in calves and piglets. RESULTS: Based on nine initial sources including standard textbooks and European ethnoveterinary studies, a total of 223 medicinal plant species related to the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases was identified. A defined search strategy was established using the PRISMA statement to evaluate 30 medicinal plant species starting from 20'000 peer-reviewed articles published in the last 20 years (1994-2014). This strategy led to 418 references (257 in vitro, 84 in vivo and 77 clinical trials, thereof 48 clinical trials in veterinary medicine) to evaluate effects of medicinal plants and their efficacy in detail. The findings indicate that the most promising candidates for gastrointestinal diseases are Allium sativum L., Mentha x piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L.; for diseases of the respiratory tract Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Thymus vulgaris L. and Althea officinalis L. were found most promising, and Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Origanum vulgare L. were identified as best candidates for modulation of the immune system and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Several medicinal plants bear a potential for novel treatment strategies for young livestock. There is a need for further research focused on gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets, and the findings of this review provide a basis on plant selection for future studies.  
  Address Department of Livestock Sciences, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 113, postbox 219, Frick, 5070, Switzerland. hannah.ayrle@fibl.org. Division Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Department Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 124, Bern, 3012, Switzerland. hannah.ayrle@fibl.org. Division Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Department Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 124, Bern, 3012, Switzerland. Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, Zurich, 8057, Switzerland. Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Swine Clinic, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bremgartenstrasse 109a, Bern, 3012, Switzerland. Dahlem Centre of Plant Sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universitat Berlin, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 2 + 4, Berlin, 14195, Germany. Department of Livestock Sciences, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 113, postbox 219, Frick, 5070, Switzerland.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/06/09  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Web of Science Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1421 Serial 2880  
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Author (up) Belshaw, Z.; Asher, L.; Dean, R.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Systematic Review of Outcome Measures Reported in Clinical Canine Osteoarthritis Research Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Veterinary Surgery Abbreviated Journal Vet Surg  
  Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 480-487  
  Keywords dogs; canines; osteoarthritis; outcome measures  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To record and categorize the outcome measures used in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA) by systematically reviewing the peer reviewed publications on OA in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review. STUDY POPULATION: Peer reviewed literature on canine OA. METHODS: A computer-based bibliographic search was performed on PubMed and CAB Abstracts in August 2013 to find peer reviewed publications relevant to canine OA. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The outcome measures reported within each publication were recorded and categorized for comparison. Adequately described outcome measures were assessed for uniqueness and evidence of prior validation. RESULTS: Of 3,697 publications identified and screened, 117 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Within eligible publications, outcome measures were used 618 times (median of 4 outcome measures per publication). Outcomes measured were divided into 5 groups containing 65 categories. The most frequently assessed outcomes were lameness assessment with no stated gait/mixed gaits (66 outcomes), radiography (58), and lameness single gait/lateral motion (55). Of 618 outcome measures reported, 491 were assessed for uniqueness and 348 (71%) were unique to a single publication. Ten outcome measures were reported to have been validated. CONCLUSION: Many outcome measures have been used to assess canine OA. There is no consensus on which are the most useful outcomes or by which method they should be assessed. There is a pressing need for agreement on outcomes reporting in canine OA and for validation of outcome measures used for these assessments. Until consensus is reached, we recommend at least one validated outcome measure be used in every clinical study.  
  Address Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/04/28  
  ISSN 1532-950X (Electronic) 0161-3499 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1409 Serial 2871  
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Author (up) Charalambous, M.; Shivapour, S.K.; Brodbelt, D.C.; Volk, H.A. doi  openurl
  Title Antiepileptic drugs' tolerability and safety--a systematic review and meta-analysis of adverse effects in dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 79  
  Keywords Dogs; Canines; Epilepsy; Anticonvulsants; Antiepileptic drugs; Adverse effects; Safety; Side effects  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The safety profile of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) is an important consideration for the regulatory bodies, owners and prescribing clinicians. Information on their adverse effects still remains limited. A systematic review including a meta-analytic approach was designed to evaluate existing evidence for the safety profile of AEDs in canine patients. Electronic searches of PubMed, CAB Direct and Google scholar were carried out without date or language restrictions. Conference proceedings were also searched. Peer-reviewed full-length studies reporting adverse effects of AEDs in epileptic and healthy non-epileptic dogs were included. Studies were allocated to three groups based on their design. Individual studies were evaluated based on the quality of evidence (study design, study group sizes, subject enrolment quality and overall risk of bias) and the outcome measures reported (proportion of specific adverse effects for each AED, prevalence and 95% confidence interval of the affected population in each study and comparative odds ratio of adverse effects for AEDs). RESULTS: Ninety studies, including six conference proceedings, reporting clinical outcomes of AEDs' adverse effects were identified. Few studies were designed as blinded randomised controlled clinical trials. Many studies included low canine populations with unclear criteria of subject enrolment and short treatment periods. Direct comparisons suggested that imepitoin and levetiracetam might have a better safety profile than phenobarbital, whilst the latter might have a better safety profile than potassium bromide. However, none of these comparisons showed a statistically significant difference. Comparisons between other AEDs were not possible as a considerable amount of studies lacked power calculations or adequate data to allow further statistical analysis. Individual AED assessments indicated that levetiracetam might be one of the safest AEDs, followed by imepitoin and then phenobarbital and potassium bromide; these findings were all supported by a strong level of evidence. The safety profile in other AEDs was variable, but weak evidence was found to permit firm conclusions or to compare their safety to other AEDs. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review provides objective evaluation of the most commonly used AEDs' adverse effects. Adverse effects usually appeared mild in all AEDs and subsided once doses and/or serum levels were monitored or after the AED was withdrawn. Although phenobarbital might be less safe than imepitoin and levetiracetam, there was insufficient evidence to classify it as an AED with a high risk of major adverse effects. It is important for clinicians to evaluate both AEDs' effectiveness and safety on an individual basis before the selection of the appropriate monotherapy or adjunctive AED therapy.  
  Address Faculty of Brain Sciences, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. marios.charalambous.15@ucl.ac.uk. College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011, USA. Department of Production and Population Health, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Herts, AL9 7TA, UK. Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Herts, AL9 7TA, UK.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/05/22  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, CAB Direct and Google Scholar Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1422 Serial 2881  
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Author (up) Charlton, K.E.; Russell, J.; Gorman, E.; Hanich, Q.; Delisle, A.; Campbell, B.; Bell, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 16 Issue Pages 285  
  Keywords Fish; Food security; Pacific Islands  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a) household food security and b) individual nutritional status. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30% of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. CONCLUSIONS: Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.  
  Address School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia. karenc@uow.edu.au. School of Health and Society, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia. Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia. Betty and Gordon Moore Center for Science and Oceans, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, 22202, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/03/25  
  ISSN 1471-2458 (Electronic) 1471-2458 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Scopus, Web of Science and Medline searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1426 Serial 2885  
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Author (up) Counotte, M.J.; Minbaeva, G.; Usubalieva, J.; Abdykerimov, K.; Torgerson, P.R. doi  openurl
  Title The Burden of Zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan: A Systematic Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Abbreviated Journal PLoS Negl Trop Dis  
  Volume 10 Issue 7 Pages e0004831  
  Keywords Kyrgyzstan; Zoonoses  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic disease (ZD) pose a serious threat to human health in low-income countries. In these countries the human burden of disease is often underestimated due to insufficient monitoring because of insufficient funding. Quantification of the impact of zoonoses helps in prioritizing healthcare needs. Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with 48% of the population employed in agriculture and one third of the population living below the poverty line. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have assessed the burden of zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan by conducting a systematic review. We have used the collected data to estimate the burden of ZDs and addressed the underestimation in officially reported disease incidence. The estimated incidences of the ZDs were used to calculate incidence-based Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). This standardized health gap measure enhances comparability between injuries and diseases. The combined burden for alveolar echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis, brucellosis, campylobacteriosis, congenital toxoplasmosis, non-typhoidal salmonellosis and rabies in Kyrgyzstan in 2013 was 35,209 DALYs [95% Uncertainty interval (UI):13,413-83,777]; 576 deaths [95% UI: 279-1,168] were attributed to these infections. We estimate a combined median incidence of ZDs of 141,583 cases [95% UI: 33,912-250,924] in 2013. The highest burden was caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively 14,792 DALYs [95% UI: 3,966-41,532] and 11,915 DALYs [95% UI: 4,705-27,114] per year. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The health impact of zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan is substantial, comparable to that of HIV. Community-based surveillance studies and hospital-based registration of all occurrences of zoonoses would increase the accuracy of the estimates.  
  Address Section of Epidemiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. State Sanitary Epidemiological Department of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Laboratory “Express Plus”, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/07/09  
  ISSN 1935-2735 (Electronic) 1935-2727 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, OVID, Scopus, the WHO Global Health Library, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and ProMED-mail and Google Scholar were searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1443 Serial 2891  
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Author (up) Duncan, A.J.; Gunn, G.J.; Humphry, R.W. doi  openurl
  Title Difficulties arising from the variety of testing schemes used for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Veterinary Record Abbreviated Journal Vet Rec  
  Volume 178 Issue 12 Pages 292  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovine; Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV); Epidemiology; Eradication schemes  
  Abstract Globally, the eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is still in its infancy, but eradication has been, or is being, adopted by several countries or regions. Comparisons between countries' schemes allow others to assess best practice, and aggregating published results from eradication schemes provides greater statistical power when analysing data. Aggregating data requires that results derived from different testing schemes be calibrated against one another. The authors aimed to evaluate whether relationships between published BVDV test results could be created and present the outcome of a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The results are tabulated, providing a summary of papers where there is potential cross-calibration and a summary of the obstacles preventing such data aggregation. Although differences in measuring BVDV present barriers to academic progress, they may also affect progress within individual eradication schemes. The authors examined the time taken to retest following an initial antibody BVDV test in the Scottish eradication scheme. The authors demonstrate that retesting occurred quicker if the initial not negative test was from blood rather than milk samples. Such differences in the response of farmers/veterinarians to tests may be of interest to the design of future schemes.  
  Address Inverness College UHI, 1 Inverness Campus, Inverness IV2 5NA, UK Epidemiology Research Unit, SRUC (Scotland's Rural College), Drummondhill, Stratherrick Road, Inverness IV2 4JZ, UK. Epidemiology Research Unit, SRUC (Scotland's Rural College), Drummondhill, Stratherrick Road, Inverness IV2 4JZ, UK.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/02/13  
  ISSN 2042-7670 (Electronic) 0042-4900 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science (Web of Knowledge) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1406 Serial 2868  
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Author (up) Francoz, D.; Wellemans, V.; Roy, J.P.; Lacasse, P.; Ordonez-Iturriaga, A.; Labelle, F.; Dufour, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Non-antibiotic approaches at drying-off for treating and preventing intramammary infections: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Health Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Anim Health Res Rev  
  Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 169-175  
  Keywords Cattle; Cows; Bovine; Dairy cows; Mastitis; Drying off; Antimicrobials  
  Abstract Intramammary infection (IMI) treatment and prevention at drying-off is one of the leading causes for using antimicrobials on dairy farms. The objective of the current paper is to describe the protocol used for conducting a systematic review of the literature on non-antibiotic strategies that can be used on dairy cows at dry off to treat and prevent IMI. Relevant literature will be identified using a combination of database search strategies and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, articles will have to: (1) be published after 1969; (2) be written in English, French, or Spanish; (3) use a study design such as a controlled trial, an observational study, or an experimental study conducted in vivo; (4) be conducted on commercial dairy cows; (5) investigate a non-antibiotic intervention used at dry off; and finally, (6) report on a relevant mastitis outcome. Titles and abstracts, then full articles will be reviewed for inclusion. Specific data will be extracted and risk of bias will be assessed for all included articles. The planned systematic review will be the first to colligate, in a coherent whole, studies investigating non-antibiotic strategies for treating and preventing IMI at drying-off.  
  Address Departement de sciences cliniques,Faculte de medecine veterinaire,Universite de Montreal,C.P. 5000,St-Hyacinthe,QC, J2S 7C6,Canada. Canadian Bovine Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Network,C.P. 5000,St-Hyacinthe,QC, J2S 7C6,Canada. Departement de pathologie et microbiologie, Faculte de medecine veterinaire,Universite de Montreal,C.P. 5000,St-Hyacinthe,QC, J2S 7C6,Canada.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/02/06  
  ISSN 1475-2654 (Electronic) 1466-2523 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts and Medline searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1450 Serial 2906  
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Author (up) Hanel, R.M.; Palmer, L.; Baker, J.; Brenner, J.A.; Crowe, D.T.; Dorman, D.; Gicking, J.C.; Gilger, B.; Otto, C.M.; Robertson, S.A.; Rozanski, E.; Trumpatori, B. doi  openurl
  Title Best practice recommendations for prehospital veterinary care of dogs and cats Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Abbreviated Journal J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio)  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 166-233  
  Keywords Cats; Dogs; ECC; Critical care  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine available evidence on prehospital care in human and veterinary trauma and emergency medicine and develop best practice guidelines for use by both paramedical and nonparamedical personnel in the approach to the prehospital care of dogs and cats. DESIGN: Systematic evaluation of the literature gathered via medical databases searches of Medline, CAB abstracts, and Google Scholar. SYNTHESIS: From a review and systematic evaluation of the available evidence, consensus guidelines on the approach to prehospital care of dogs and cats in 18 scenarios were developed. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the lack of current evidence in the veterinary prehospital arena, best practice guidelines were developed as an initial platform. Recommendations were based on a review of pertinent human and available veterinary literature as well as a consensus of the authors' professional opinions. It is anticipated that evidence-based additions will be made in the future.  
  Address Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, 27607. The K9 Tactical Emergency Casualty Care Working Group, Auburn, AL, 36830. The Veterinary Tactical Group, Vass, NC, 28394. K9 MEDIC, Walnut, CA, 91789. Regional Institute for Veterinary Emergencies and Referrals, Chattanooga, TN, 37406. Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, 27607. BluePearl Veterinary Partners, Tampa, FL, 33614. The Penn Vet Working Dog Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19146. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, East Lansing, MI, 48824. The Department of Clinical Sciences Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA, 01536. The Veterinary Specialty Hospital of the Carolinas, Cary, NC, 27518.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/03/21  
  ISSN 1476-4431 (Electronic) 1476-4431 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Medline, CAB abstracts, and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1400 Serial 2863  
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Author (up) Laranjo-Gonzalez, M.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Gabriel, S.; Dorny, P.; Allepuz, A. doi  openurl
  Title Epidemiology, impact and control of bovine cysticercosis in Europe: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Parasites and Vectors Abbreviated Journal Parasit Vectors  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 81  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovine; Cysticercosis  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Bovine cysticercosis in Europe has been known for centuries but the data showing the occurrence of this zoonosis are scarce. The aim of this paper is to review and present the current knowledge on bovine cysticercosis in Europe. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1990 and November 2014. Qualitative and quantitative data on prevalence, risk factors, burden and interventions were extracted and analysed. RESULTS: Reports on prevalence were available for 23 European countries, mostly from western and central Europe; for a few of these only data before 1990 were available. Prevalence based on meat inspection was generally low (below 6.2 % in 95 % of the records) and varied between and within countries. Serology and detailed meat inspection provided a higher prevalence range (0.41-14 %). Only few studies analysing risk factors were identified. Reported factors related to access to pastures and risky waters, dairy production and uncontrolled human defecation in the proximity of the farm among others. Only one estimate of the economic impact of the disease could be identified. Recommended interventions were focused on increasing diagnostic tests sensitivity or the application of risk based surveillance strategies. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of complete and updated data on most countries, especially in eastern Europe. Further risk factor studies might be needed together with estimates on the burden of the disease in all European countries. Risk-based interventions are being encouraged but current data are limited to guide this approach.  
  Address Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA)-Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193, Spain. minervalaranjo@gmail.com. Department of Animal Sciences and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. brechtdv@gmail.com. Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium. brechtdv@gmail.com. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. sgabriel@itg.be. Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium. pdorny@itg.be. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. pdorny@itg.be. Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA)-Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193, Spain. alberto.allepuz@uab.cat. Departament de Sanitat i Anatomia Animals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, 08193, Spain. alberto.allepuz@uab.cat.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/02/11  
  ISSN 1756-3305 (Electronic) 1756-3305 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (web of Knowledge) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1407 Serial 2869  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Leta, S.; Alemayehu, G.; Seyoum, Z.; Bezie, M. doi  openurl
  Title Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Parasites and Vectors Abbreviated Journal Parasit Vectors  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 139  
  Keywords Cows; Bovines; Bovine trypanosomosis; Prevalence  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Trypanosomosis is a haemoprotozoan disease, mostly transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina spp.), it causes severe disease in humans and animals in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The disease results in loss of livestock and agricultural productivity with severe socio-economic impacts. In Ethiopia, bovine trypanosomosis is widely distributed in western and south-western parts of the country. It is estimated that some 10 to 14 million heads of cattle in Ethiopia are exposed to the risk of trypanosomosis. METHODS: This study describes the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Ethiopia through a meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted on PubMed and non-PubMed indexed articles were also incorporated based on expert suggestion. Eligible studies were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pooled prevalence was estimated by random effect model. Publication bias and the variation in prevalence estimates attributed to heterogeneity were also assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies with relevant prevalence data were identified and included in the analysis. The apparent prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis varied from 1.38 to 17.15 %. The pooled estimate of bovine trypanosomosis prevalence across studies for the entire period was 8.12 % (95 % CI: 6.88; 9.35), ranging from 10.27 % (95 % CI: 7.34; 13.20) in the late 1990s and early 2000s, to 6.81 % (95 % CI: 5.00; 8.62) after 2010. Sub-analysis by region revealed wide variations in prevalence. The highest estimated regional prevalence was 13.30 % (95 % CI: 7.73; 18.88) in Benishangul Gumuz Regional state. A high degree of heterogeneity was observed in most pooled estimates and even after sub-group analysis. The visual inspection of the funnel plot and the Egger's regression asymmetry coefficient [b = 2.18] (95 % CI = -1.09, 5.46; p > 0.05) did not suggest the presence of publication bias. T. congolense and T. vivax were reported to be the predominant causative agents. From the total positive animals, 45.5 and 44.3 % of the infections are accounted to T. congolense and T. vivax, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in recent years, but the reduction is not to the lowest necessary level. Since T. vivax is reported to be one of the most important trypanosome species involved, efforts should also be made to control the mechanical transmission by biting flies.  
  Address Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, P.O. Box: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. samiwude@gmail.com. College of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, P.O. Box: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/03/12  
  ISSN 1756-3305 (Electronic) 1756-3305 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1401 Serial 2862  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Martineau, R.; Ouellet, D.R.; Kebreab, E.; Lapierre, H. doi  openurl
  Title Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 2748-2761  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovine; Casein; DMI  
  Abstract The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28kg/d at mean MP balance (-264g/d) and casein IR (336g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20kg/d at mean casein IR (339g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in casein studies (+0.59mM) and the influence of the casein IR was greatest for cows in positive MP balance (0.26 vs. 0.11mM per 100g/d increment). Responses in DMI were also correlated negatively with responses in blood urea concentration only for cows in positive MP balance. Together, these results suggest an association between satiety and deamination and oxidation of AA supplied in excess of requirements for cows in positive MP balance. Therefore, casein stimulated appetite in cows fed MP-deficient diets possibly via the supply of orexigenic AA or through a pull effect in response to an increased metabolic demand. Conversely, casein induced satiety in cows fed diets supplying MP in excess of requirements. Not precluding other factors involved in satiety (e.g., insulin, gut peptides), casein could have increased the supply of AA (e.g., Ser, Thr, Tyr), which might depress appetite at the brain level or increase the deamination and the oxidation of AA in oversupply in agreement with the hepatic oxidation theory.  
  Address Valacta, Dairy Production Centre of Expertise Quebec-Atlantic, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3R4. Electronic address: roger.martineau@agr.gc.ca. Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1M 0C8. Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis 95616.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/02/08  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Scopus searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1408 Serial 2870  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Martinez-Gutierrez, M.; Ruiz-Saenz, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Diversity of susceptible hosts in canine distemper virus infection: a systematic review and data synthesis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 78  
  Keywords Canine; Dogs; Distemper Virus; Morbillivirus  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the etiological agent of one of the most infectious diseases of domestic dogs, also known as a highly prevalent viral infectious disease of carnivores and posing a conservation threat to endangered species around the world. To get a better panorama of CDV infection in different Orders, a retrospective and documental systematic review of the role of CDV in different non-dog hosts was conducted. The bibliographical data were collected from MedLine/PubMed and Scopus databases. Data related to Order, Family, Genus and Species of the infected animals, the presence or absence of clinical signs, mortality, serological, molecular or antigenic confirmation of CDV infection, geographic location, were collected and summarized. RESULTS: Two hundred seventeen scientific articles were considered eligible which includes reports of serological evaluation, and antigenic or genomic confirmation of CDV infection in non-dog hosts. CDV infects naturally and experimentally different members of the Orders Carnivora (in 12 Families), Rodentia (four Families), Primates (two Families), Artiodactyla (three Families) and Proboscidea (one Family). The Order Carnivora (excluding domestic dogs) accounts for the vast majority (87.5%) of the records. Clinical disease associated with CDV infection was reported in 51.8% of the records and serological evidence of CDV infection in apparently healthy animals was found in 49.5% of the records. High mortality rate was showed in some of the recorded infections in Orders different to Carnivora. In non-dog hosts, CDV has been reported all continents with the exception of Australasia and in 43 different countries. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this systematic review demonstrate that CDV is able to infect a very wide range of host species from many different Orders and emphasizes the potential threat of infection for endangered wild species as well as raising concerns about potential zoonotic threats following the cessation of large-scale measles vaccination campaigns in the human population.  
  Address Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencias Animales GRICA, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Calle 30A # 33-51, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencias Animales GRICA, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Calle 30A # 33-51, Bucaramanga, Colombia. julianruizsaenz@gmail.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/05/14  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MedLine/PubMed and Scopus Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1423 Serial 2882  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) McAloon, C.G.; Whyte, P.; More, S.J.; Green, M.J.; O'Grady, L.; Garcia, A.; Doherty, M.L. doi  openurl
  Title The effect of paratuberculosis on milk yield-A systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 99 Issue 2 Pages 1449-1460  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovines; Johne's disease; Paratuberculosis; Milk Yield  
  Abstract Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis causing protein-losing enteropathy. Adverse effects on animal productivity are key drivers in the attempt to control paratuberculosis at the farm level. Economic models require an accurate estimation of the production effects associated with paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of paratuberculosis on milk production. A total of 20 effect estimates from 15 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Substantial between-study heterogeneity was observed. Subgroup analysis by case definition and study design was carried out to investigate heterogeneity. The majority of between-study variation was attributed to studies that defined cases on serology. Calculation of a pooled effect estimate was only appropriate for studies that defined cases by organism detection. A reduction in milk yield, corrected for lactation number and herd of origin of 1.87kg/d, equivalent to 5.9% of yield, was associated with fecal culture or PCR positivity in individual cows.  
  Address Section of Herd Health and Animal Husbandry, School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address: mcaloonconor@gmail.com. Section of Herd Health and Animal Husbandry, School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, LE12 5RD, United Kingdom. Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/12/22  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and CABDirect searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1390 Serial 2855  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) McCready, D.J.; Ness, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Systematic review of the prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management of meniscal injury in dogs: Part 2 Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Small Animal Practice Abbreviated Journal J Small Anim Pract  
  Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 194-204  
  Keywords Dogs; Cruciate disease; Orthopaedics  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the evidence reporting the diagnosis and management of meniscal injury in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament failure. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research questions relating to the accuracy of diagnostic techniques for meniscal injury and the effects of meniscal treatment were defined. An electronic database search of PubMed and CAB Abstracts was performed during March 2015. Data were extracted for study participants, design, intervention, outcome measures and results. Studies were evaluated using a validated instrument for assessing methodological quality and assigned a Quality Index score. A level of evidence was then assigned to each study. RESULTS: Eighty-nine studies were identified. The median Quality Index score was 14 out of a possible 26. Twenty-seven studies were prospective case series, 31 retrospective case series, 16 animal research and 15 cadaveric studies. There were no class I or class II studies, 27 class III and 62 class IV studies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a large number of publications the quality of evidence was generally low. No one study or combination of studies provided high quality evidence to support one diagnostic or surgical intervention over another for meniscal injuries in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament failure.  
  Address Croft Veterinary Hospital, Cramlington, Northumberland, NE23 7RH.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/03/24  
  ISSN 1748-5827 (Electronic) 0022-4510 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1399 Serial 2861  
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Author (up) Meyer, A.; Holt, H.R.; Selby, R.; Guitian, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Past and Ongoing Tsetse and Animal Trypanosomiasis Control Operations in Five African Countries: A Systematic Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Abbreviated Journal PLoS Negl Trop Dis  
  Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages e0005247  
  Keywords Trypanosoma; Livestock; Cattle; Sheep  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Control operations targeting Animal African Trypanosomiasis and its primary vector, the tsetse, were covering approximately 128,000 km2 of Africa in 2001, which is a mere 1.3% of the tsetse infested area. Although extensive trypanosomiasis and tsetse (T&T) control operations have been running since the beginning of the 20th century, Animal African Trypanosomiasis is still a major constraint of livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review of the existing literature describing T&T control programmes conducted in a selection of five African countries, namely Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Uganda and Zambia, between 1980 and 2015. Sixty-eight documents were eventually selected from those identified by the database search. This was supplemented with information gathered through semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve key informants recruited in the study countries and selected based on their experience and knowledge of T&T control. The combined information from these two sources was used to describe the inputs, processes and outcomes from 23 major T&T control programmes implemented in the study countries. Although there were some data gaps, involvement of the target communities and sustainability of the control activities were identified as the two main issues faced by these programmes. Further, there was a lack of evaluation of these control programmes, as well as a lack of a standardised methodology to conduct such evaluations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Past experiences demonstrated that coordinated and sustained control activities require careful planning, and evidence of successes, failures and setbacks from past control programmes represent a mine of information. As there is a lack of evaluation of these programmes, these data have not been fully exploited for the design, analyses and justification of future control programmes.  
  Address Department of Production and Population Health, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, United Kingdom. Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/12/28  
  ISSN 1935-2735 (Electronic) 1935-2727 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ScienceDirect, Web Of Science and PubMed Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1416 Serial 2875  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Munsterman, A.S.; Kottwitz, J.J.; Reid Hanson, R. url  openurl
  Title Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Adhesion Barriers on Adhesion Formation in the Horse Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Veterinary Surgery Abbreviated Journal Vet Surg  
  Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 587-595  
  Keywords Horse; Adhesions; Wound Healing  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of adhesion barriers in horses using quantitative statistical analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analytical review. METHODS: A search using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar was performed, followed by secondary searches of veterinary trade journals, bibliographies of relevant articles, manufacturer websites, and technical reference guides. Randomized experimental trials in healthy horses were considered that included both a treatment and control group. The endpoint required was euthanasia or laparoscopy to identify adhesion formation. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model, with the effect size calculated as an odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical significance was set at P<.05. RESULTS: Out of 354 peer reviewed publications that met the search criteria, a total of 9 relevant studies were identified and investigated the use of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solutions, sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) membranes, hyaluronate (HA), and fucoidan solutions. The odds of adhesions in horses treated with an adhesion barrier were significantly lower than untreated controls (OR=0.102; 95% CI [0.041, 0.254]; P<.001). When analyzed as subsets for each type of barrier, horses treated with HA/CMC membranes and CMC solutions had significant OR for fewer adhesions (OR=0.061; 95% CI [0.013, 0.292]; OR=0.119; 95% CI [0.034, 0.415], respectively; P<.001). CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis demonstrated adhesion barriers provide a positive effect on the odds of adhesion formation. These results are tempered by the limitations of the study, including the small sample size and a bias towards publication of studies with only positive findings.  
  Address Equine Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/06/16  
  ISSN 1532-950X (Electronic) 0161-3499 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1420 Serial 2879  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Musallam, I.I.; Abo-Shehada, M.N.; Hegazy, Y.M.; Holt, H.R.; Guitian, F.J. doi  openurl
  Title Systematic review of brucellosis in the Middle East: disease frequency in ruminants and humans and risk factors for human infection Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Epidemiology and Infection Abbreviated Journal Epidemiol Infect  
  Volume 144 Issue 4 Pages 671-685  
  Keywords Cattle; Brucellosis; Prevalence; Risk Factors  
  Abstract A systematic review of studies providing frequency estimates of brucellosis in humans and ruminants and risk factors for Brucella spp. seropositivity in humans in the Middle East was conducted to collate current knowledge of brucellosis in this region. Eight databases were searched for peer-reviewed original Arabic, English, French and Persian journal articles; the search was conducted on June 2014. Two reviewers evaluated articles for inclusion based on pre-defined criteria. Of 451 research articles, only 87 articles passed the screening process and provided bacteriological and serological evidence for brucellosis in all Middle Eastern countries. Brucella melitensis and B. abortus have been identified in most countries in the Middle East, supporting the notion of widespread presence of Brucella spp. especially B. melitensis across the region. Of the 87 articles, 49 were used to provide evidence of the presence of Brucella spp. but only 11 provided new knowledge on the frequency of brucellosis in humans and ruminants or on human risk factors for seropositivity and were deemed of sufficient quality. Small ruminant populations in the region show seroprevalence values that are among the highest worldwide. Human cases are likely to arise from subpopulations occupationally exposed to ruminants or from the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The Middle East is in need of well-designed observational studies that could generate reliable frequency estimates needed to assess the burden of disease and to inform disease control policies.  
  Address Veterinary Epidemiology,Economics and Public Health Group,Department of Production and Population Health,The Royal Veterinary College,University of London,Hatfield,UK. Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,Keppel Street,London,UK. Department of Animal Medicine,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Kafr el-Sheikh University,Kafr el-Sheikh,Egypt.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/10/29  
  ISSN 1469-4409 (Electronic) 0950-2688 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes BioMed Central Journals, CAB Direct (CABI), Cochrane Library – Cochrane, Database of Systematic Reviews (Wiley), ScienceDirect, ERIC plus Text (ProQuest), IBSS (CSA), PubMed, and Web of Science (ISI) Zetoc searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1378 Serial 2845  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Njeru, J.; Henning, K.; Pletz, M.W.; Heller, R.; Neubauer, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Q fever is an old and neglected zoonotic disease in Kenya: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 16 Issue Pages 297  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovines; Sheep; Ovines; Goats; Caprine; Camels; Q fever; Coxiella burnetii  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Q fever is a neglected zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The knowledge of the epidemiology of Q fever in Kenya is limited with no attention to control and prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to understand the situation of Q fever in human and animal populations in Kenya in the past 60 years, and help identify future research priorities for the country. METHODS: Databases were searched for national and international scientific studies or reports on Q fever. We included studies and reports published between 1950 and 2015 if they reported on Q fever prevalence, incidence, and infection control programs in Kenya. Data were extracted with respect to studies on prevalence of Coxiella infections, study design, study region, the study populations involved, and sorted according to the year of the study. RESULTS: We identified 15 studies and reports which qualified for data extraction. Human seroprevalence studies revealed evidence of C. burnetii infections ranging from 3 to 35.8% in all regions in which surveys were made and two Q fever outbreak episodes. Coxiella burnetii infections found in cattle 7.4-51.1%, sheep 6.7-20%, camels 20-46%, and goats 20-46% revealed variation based on ecoregions and the year of study. Farming and lack of protective clothing were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. However, high quality data is lacking on Q fever awareness, underlying cultural-economic factors influencing C. burnetii infection, and how the pathogen cycles may be embedded in livestock production and management systems in the economically and ecologically different Kenyan regions. We found no studies on national disease incidence estimates or disease surveillance and control efforts. CONCLUSION: Coxiella burnetii infections are common in human and in a wide range of animal populations but are still unrecognized and underestimated thus presenting a significant human and animal health threat in Kenya. The factors influencing pathogen transmission, persistence and spread are poorly understood. Integrated disease surveillance and prevention/control programs are needed in Kenya.  
  Address Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonosis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 07743, Jena, Germany. John.Njeru@fli.bund.de. Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, Jena University Hospital, 07740, Jena, Germany. John.Njeru@fli.bund.de. Centre for Microbiology Research (CMR), Kenya Medical Research Institute, P. O. Box 19464-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. John.Njeru@fli.bund.de. Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonosis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 07743, Jena, Germany. Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, Jena University Hospital, 07740, Jena, Germany. Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07745, Jena, Germany.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/04/07  
  ISSN 1471-2458 (Electronic) 1471-2458 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CABDIRECT, Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1425 Serial 2884  
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