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Author (up) Allan, K.J.; Biggs, H.M.; Halliday, J.E.; Kazwala, R.R.; Maro, V.P.; Cleaveland, S.; Crump, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Abbreviated Journal PLoS Negl Trop Dis  
  Volume 9 Issue 9 Pages e0003899  
  Keywords Cows; Bovines, Leptospirosis; Epidemiology; One Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1) the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human leptospirosis in Africa; and (2) the geographic distribution, host range, prevalence and diversity of Leptospira spp. infection in animal hosts in Africa. METHODS: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched for studies that described (1) acute human leptospirosis and (2) pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection in animals. We performed a literature search using eight international and regional databases for English and non-English articles published between January 1930 to October 2014 that met out pre-defined inclusion criteria and strict case definitions. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We identified 97 studies that described acute human leptospirosis (n = 46) or animal Leptospira infection (n = 51) in 26 African countries. The prevalence of acute human leptospirosis ranged from 2 3% to 19 8% (n = 11) in hospital patients with febrile illness. Incidence estimates were largely restricted to the Indian Ocean islands (3 to 101 cases per 100,000 per year (n = 6)). Data from Tanzania indicate that human disease incidence is also high in mainland Africa (75 to 102 cases per 100,000 per year). Three major species (Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri) are predominant in reports from Africa and isolates from a diverse range of serogroups have been reported in human and animal infections. Cattle appear to be important hosts of a large number of Leptospira serogroups in Africa, but few data are available to allow comparison of Leptospira infection in linked human and animal populations. We advocate a 'One Health' approach to promote multidisciplinary research efforts to improve understanding of the animal to human transmission of leptospirosis on the African continent.  
  Address The Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania; Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania. Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America; Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania; Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania; Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America; Centre for International Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/09/15  
  ISSN 1935-2735 (Electronic) 1935-2727 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, Biosis, CABI abstracts, Zoological Record, Africa-Wide NiPAD, and Africa Index Medicus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1402 Serial 2864  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Arrighi, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The urothelium: anatomy, review of the literature, perspectives for veterinary medicine Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft Abbreviated Journal Ann Anat  
  Volume 198 Issue Pages 73-82  
  Keywords Cattle; Sheep; Pigs; Cat; Dog; Rodents; Buffaloes  
  Abstract Over time, much knowledge has been accumulated about the active role of the urothelium, principally in rodents and human. Far from being a mere passive barrier, this specialized epithelium can alter the ion and protein composition of the urine, is able to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli such as pressure, and react to mechanical stimuli by epithelial cell communication with the nervous system. Most of the specialized functions of the urothelium are linked to a number of morpho-physiologic properties exhibited by the superficial umbrella cells, including specialized membrane lipids, asymmetric unit membrane particles and a plasmalemma with stiff plaques which function as a barrier to most substances found in urine, thus protecting the underlying tissues. Moreover, the entire mucosa lining the low urinary tract, composed of urothelium and sub-urothelium, forms a functional transduction unit, able to respond to eso- and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli in a manner assuring an adequate functional response. This review will summarize the available information on each area of inquiry from a morpho-functional point of view. Possible considerations pertaining to species of veterinary interest are reviewed as well. The review was prepared consulting the electronic databases PubMed and Cab Abstracts and retrieving all pertinent reports and the relative reference lists, in order to identify any potential additional studies that could be included. Full-length research articles and thematic reviews were considered. Information on the urothelium of some domestic animal species was also included.  
  Address Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Laboratory of Anatomy and Confocal Microscopy, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy. Electronic address: silvana.arrighi@unimi.it.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/12/24  
  ISSN 1618-0402 (Electronic) 0940-9602 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Cab Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1343 Serial 2819  
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Author (up) Baltzell, P.; Engelken, T.; O'Connor, A.M. doi  openurl
  Title A critical review and meta-analysis of the magnitude of the effect of anthelmintic use on stocker calf production parameters in Northern US States Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Veterinary Parasitology Abbreviated Journal Vet Parasitol  
  Volume 214 Issue 1-2 Pages 2-11  
  Keywords Cattle; Calves; Bovines; Anthelmintics  
  Abstract Parasitism of the gastrointestinal tract of cattle leads to diminished health and productivity of grazing livestock. Anthelmintics are used to decrease parasite loads in cattle for improved weight gain. This critical review and meta-analysis aims to quantify the magnitude of the effect of use of anthelmintic products on production metrics in beef stocker calves. Four databases were searched in March 2013. Eligible studies compared average daily gain (ADG), or weight gain in stocker calves in northern climates of the United States that received anthelmintic treatments compared with placebo or an alternative anthelmintic treatment. Study results were extracted, and where possible, summary effect measures were calculated. Of 512 citations identified by the search, 9 manuscripts with 23 relevant individual studies were selected. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies included in the review and assessed to be unclear for the majority of the studies. There were 23 studies that assessed the magnitude of effect of anthelmintic use on ADG (summary mean difference in ADG=0.05kg (50g), 95% CI=0.03-0.07kg, p<0.00001). The magnitude of weight gain associated with anthelmintic use could not be assessed, as measures of precision (standard errors or standard deviations) were not reported in these studies. Overall, the conclusion was made that anthelmintic use is associated with an increased weight gain. However, the approach to reporting employed by authors for this type of study means that many studies could not be included in the meta-analysis and the magnitude of effect not determined.  
  Address Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States. Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States. Electronic address: oconnor@iastate.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/09/29  
  ISSN 1873-2550 (Electronic) 0304-4017 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews, PubMed, Agricola and WorldCat searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1384 Serial 2851  
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Author (up) Bangar, Y.C.; Singh, B.; Dohare, A.K.; Verma, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Tropical Animal Health and Production Abbreviated Journal Trop Anim Health Prod  
  Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 291-7  
  Keywords Cattle; Cows; Dairy cows; Mastitis  
  Abstract The purpose of the study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of subclinical mastitis among dairy cows in India and to examine the consistency of those estimates between published studies. We have conducted a systematic review of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows for the period 1995-2014 using electronic and non-electronic databases. Meta-analysis of 28 studies was done under random effects model using Metaprop package in R software. The pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on cow-basis was obtained using 6344 cows from 25 studies and was found to be 46.35 % (95 % CI 39.38; 53.46). Meta-analysis for quarter-wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis was carried out using 18,721 udder quarters of dairy cows from 23 studies, and the pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on quarter-basis was found to be 23.25 % (95 % CI 18.15; 29.27). Meta-analysis showed that there is statistically high heterogeneity for the prevalence estimates between published studies. The present study reported that there is high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India, which might be responsible for low productivity in lactating cows in India over the years and needs to be controlled by adopting scientific, managemental, and therapeutic measures. Dairy farmers can reduce incidence and economic losses due to subclinical mastitis under the guidance of field veterinarians.  
  Address Division of Livestock Economics, Statistics and Information Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, yogeshbangar07@gmail.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/11/20  
  ISSN 1573-7438 (Electronic) 0049-4747 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1285 Serial 2772  
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Author (up) Barco, L.; Belluco, S.; Roccato, A.; Ricci, A. doi  openurl
  Title A systematic review of studies on Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae on beef carcasses at the slaughterhouse Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication International Journal of Food Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Food Microbiol  
  Volume 207 Issue Pages 30-39  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovines; Sheep; Ovines; Goats; Caprines; Horses; Equines; Pigs, Procines, Swine; Abattoirs; cherichia coli; Fecal contamination  
  Abstract European legislation has defined as process hygiene criteria for the main livestock species (cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs) the monitoring of aerobic colony count and Enterobacteriaceae. Detected values above the defined criteria require an improvement in slaughter hygiene and the review of process control. The main source of microbiological contamination of beef carcasses along the slaughterline is of fecal origin, therefore Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae seem to be the most suitable indicators to assess the hygienic status of the slaughter process. Although microbiological criteria addressing indicator bacteria have been in place in industrialized countries for several years, scattered information still exists on factors affecting their counts on beef carcasses along the slaughterline. Therefore, a systematic literature review, covering the period 2000-2012, was conducted to gather information concerning: 1) counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae on beef carcasses linked to different stages of the slaughterline; 2) factors influencing presence/counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae on beef carcasses; and 3) the relationship between indicator bacteria (E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae) counts and visual fecal contamination of beef carcasses. According to the 41 retrieved papers the following conclusions were drawn. A decrease of the indicator bacteria counts was recorded after sequential decontamination treatments, such as pasteurization and hot water washing. Slaughterhouse characteristics influenced bacterial load of beef carcasses, although it was difficult to assess which factors (i.e., slaughterhouse throughput, design of the plant, surveillance system in place) had the greatest effect. Finally, carcasses from fecal contaminated animals had higher bacterial loads than those from clean animals. Therefore, the development of a visual classification system of the level of dirtiness of carcasses and the application of effective treatments on the carcasses classified as dirty along the slaughterline can lead to a contamination level for these carcasses comparable to or lower than that of originally clean ones at the end of the slaughterline.  
  Address Food Safety Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Universita 10, 35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy. Food Safety Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Universita 10, 35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy. Electronic address: aricci@izsvenezie.it.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/05/16  
  ISSN 1879-3460 (Electronic) 0168-1605 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1396 Serial 2860  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Belo, V.S.; Werneck, G.L.; da Silva, E.S.; Barbosa, D.S.; Struchiner, C.J. doi  openurl
  Title Population Estimation Methods for Free-Ranging Dogs: A Systematic Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages e0144830  
  Keywords Dogs; Canines; Free-roaming; Population control  
  Abstract The understanding of the structure of free-roaming dog populations is of extreme importance for the planning and monitoring of populational control strategies and animal welfare. The methods used to estimate the abundance of this group of dogs are more complex than the ones used with domiciled owned dogs. In this systematic review, we analyze the techniques and the results obtained in studies that seek to estimate the size of free-ranging dog populations. Twenty-six studies were reviewed regarding the quality of execution and their capacity to generate valid estimates. Seven of the eight publications that take a simple count of the animal population did not consider the different probabilities of animal detection; only one study used methods based on distances; twelve relied on capture-recapture models for closed populations without considering heterogeneities in capture probabilities; six studies applied their own methods with different potential and limitations. Potential sources of bias in the studies were related to the inadequate description or implementation of animal capturing or viewing procedures and to inadequacies in the identification and registration of dogs. Thus, there was a predominance of estimates with low validity. Abundance and density estimates carried high variability, and all studies identified a greater number of male dogs. We point to enhancements necessary for the implementation of future studies and to potential updates and revisions to the recommendations of the World Health Organization with respect to the estimation of free-ranging dog populations.  
  Address Departamento de Endemias Samuel Pessoa, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Campus Centro-Oeste Dona Lindu, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei, Divinopolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Departamento de Epidemiologia – Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/12/18  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, Scopus, CAB Abstracts, ProQuest and Google Scholar searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1392 Serial 2857  
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Author (up) Bennett, B.C.; Alarcon, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Hunting and hallucinogens: The use psychoactive and other plants to improve the hunting ability of dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Ethnopharmacology Abbreviated Journal J Ethnopharmacol  
  Volume 171 Issue Pages 171-183  
  Keywords Dogs  
  Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cultures throughout the world give plants to their dogs in order to improve hunting success. These practices are best developed in lowland Ecuador and Peru. There is no experimental evidence for the efficacy of these practices nor critical reviews that consider possible pharmacological effects on dogs based on the chemistry of the ethnoverterinary plants. AIM: This review has three specific aims: (1) determine what plants the Ecuadorian Shuar and Quichua give to dogs to improve their hunting abilities, (2) determine what plants other cultures give to dogs for the same purpose, and (3) assess the possible pharmacological basis for the use of these plants, particularly the psychoactive ones. METHODS: We gathered Shuar (Province of Morona-Santiago) and Quichua (Napo and Orellano Provinces) data from our previous publications and field notes. All specimens were vouchered and deposited in QCNE with duplicates sent to NY and MO. Data presented from other cultures derived from published studies on ethnoveterinary medicine. Species names were updated, when necessary, and family assignments follow APG III (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 105-121). Chemical data were found using PubMed and SciFinder. RESULTS: The Shuar and Quichua of Ecuador use at least 22 species for ethnoveterinary purposes, including all but one of their principal hallucinogens. Literature surveys identified 43 species used in other cultures to improve hunting ability. No published studies have examined the pharmacological active of these plant species in dogs. We, thus, combined phytochemical data with the ethnobotanical reports of each plant and then classified each species into a likely pharmacological category: depuratives/deodorant, olfactory sensitizer, ophthalmic, or psychoactive. CONCLUSIONS: The use of psychoactive substances to improve a dogs hunting ability seems counterintuitive, yet its prevalence suggests that it is both adaptive and that it has an underlying pharmacological explanation. We hypothesize that hallucinogenic plants alter perception in hunting dogs by diminishing extraneous signals and by enhancing sensory perception (most likely olfaction) that is directly involved in the detection and capture of game. If this is true, plant substances also might enhance the ability of dogs to detect explosives, drugs, human remains, or other targets for which they are valued.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA. Electronic address: bennett@fiu.edu. Iamoe Centre, Via El Pindo, Coca, Ecuador. Electronic address: rocioalarcon73@gmail.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/06/02  
  ISSN 1872-7573 (Electronic) 0378-8741 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1358 Serial 2829  
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Author (up) Besson, A.A.; Lagisz, M.; Senior, A.M.; Hector, K.L.; Nakagawa, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of maternal diet on offspring coping styles in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Mice; Rats; Nutrition; Reproduction  
  Abstract Maternal nutrition can have long-term effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviours. However, it is unclear whether mothers 'program' offspring behavioural coping strategy (proactive/reactive) according to the predicted nutritional quality of their future environment. We conducted a systematic review on this topic and meta-analytically synthesized relevant experimental data on mice and rats (46 studies). We included data from experiments where dams were subjected to caloric restriction, protein restriction or overfeeding around gestation and subsequently measured offspring activity, exploration, or anxiety. Overall, little evidence existed for effects of maternal nutrition on the three investigated behavioural traits. The high heterogeneity observed in the data set suggests that maternal programming may sometimes occur. However, because offspring had access to a balanced diet before testing, behaviours may have been reprogrammed. Our results may indicate that reprogrammed behaviours could ameliorate negative effects associated with sub-optimal nutrition in early life. Further, our systematic review revealed clear knowledge gaps and fruitful future research avenues.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Evolution & Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Biological Science Building, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, New South Wales, Australia. Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Johns Hopkins Drive, Sydney 2009, New South Wales, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/07/17  
  ISSN 1469-185X (Electronic) 0006-3231 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1360 Serial 2831  
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Author (up) Bisinotto, R.S.; Lean, I.J.; Thatcher, W.W.; Santos, J.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 2472-2487  
  Keywords Cattle; Dairy cows  
  Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss (RRK+H = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.00). Service number and presynchronization did not influence the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility. In summary, progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during the timed AI program increased P/AI mostly in cows without CL and reduced the risk of pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol eliminated the benefit of supplemental progesterone on P/AI.  
  Address Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. SBScibus, PO Box 660, Camden 2570, New South Wales, Australia. Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. Electronic address: jepsantos@ufl.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/02/05  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1316 Serial 2797  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bisinotto, R.S.; Lean, I.J.; Thatcher, W.W.; Santos, J.E. doi  openurl
  Title Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 2472-2487  
  Keywords Cattle; Cows; Bovines; Reproduction; Artificial insemination  
  Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss (RRK+H = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.00). Service number and presynchronization did not influence the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility. In summary, progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during the timed AI program increased P/AI mostly in cows without CL and reduced the risk of pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol eliminated the benefit of supplemental progesterone on P/AI.  
  Address Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. SBScibus, PO Box 660, Camden 2570, New South Wales, Australia. Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. Electronic address: jepsantos@ufl.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/02/05  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1403 Serial 2865  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bol, S.; Bunnik, E.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 284  
  Keywords Cats; Herpesvirus; Lysine  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Feline herpesvirus 1 is a highly contagious virus that affects many cats. Virus infection presents with flu-like signs and irritation of ocular and nasal regions. While cats can recover from active infections without medical treatment, examination by a veterinarian is recommended. Lysine supplementation appears to be a popular intervention (recommended by > 90 % of veterinarians in cat hospitals). We investigated the scientific merit of lysine supplementation by systematically reviewing all relevant literature. METHODS: NCBI's PubMed database was used to search for published work on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1, as well as lysine and human herpesvirus 1. Seven studies on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1 (two in vitro studies and 5 studies with cats), and 10 publications on lysine and human herpesvirus 1 (three in vitro studies and 7 clinical trials) were included for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: There is evidence at multiple levels that lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats. Lysine does not have any antiviral properties, but is believed to act by lowering arginine levels. However, lysine does not antagonize arginine in cats, and evidence that low intracellular arginine concentrations would inhibit viral replication is lacking. Furthermore, lowering arginine levels is highly undesirable since cats cannot synthesize this amino acid themselves. Arginine deficiency will result in hyperammonemia, which may be fatal. In vitro studies with feline herpesvirus 1 showed that lysine has no effect on the replication kinetics of the virus. Finally, and most importantly, several clinical studies with cats have shown that lysine is not effective for the prevention or the treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection, and some even reported increased infection frequency and disease severity in cats receiving lysine supplementation. CONCLUSION: We recommend an immediate stop of lysine supplementation because of the complete lack of any scientific evidence for its efficacy.  
  Address Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA. sebastiaan.bol@ucr.edu. Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA. evelien.bunnik@ucr.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/11/18  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1373 Serial 2842  
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Author (up) Bouzid, M.; Halai, K.; Jeffreys, D.; Hunter, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Veterinary Parasitology Abbreviated Journal Vet Parasitol  
  Volume 207 Issue 3-4 Pages 181-202  
  Keywords Dogs; Cats  
  Abstract Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets.  
  Address Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich, UK. Electronic address: m.bouzid@uea.ac.uk.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/01/15  
  ISSN 1873-2550 (Electronic) 0304-4017 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1305 Serial 2789  
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Author (up) Brossi, P.M.; Moreira, J.J.; Machado, T.S.; Baccarin, R.Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Platelet-rich plasma in orthopedic therapy: a comparative systematic review of clinical and experimental data in equine and human musculoskeletal lesions Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Vet Res Abbreviated Journal BMC veterinary research  
  Volume 11 Epublication ahead of print Issue 1 Pages 98  
  Keywords Horses  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to present and critically appraise the available information on the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in equine and human orthopedic therapeutics and to verify the influence of study design and methodology on the assumption of PRP's efficacy. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, Bireme and Google Scholar without restrictions until July 2013. Randomized trials, human cohort clinical studies or case series with a control group on the use of PRP in tendons, ligaments or articular lesions were included. Equine clinical studies on the same topics were included independently of their design. Experimental studies relevant to the clarification of PRP's effects and mechanisms of action in tissues of interest, conducted in any animal species, were selected. RESULTS: This review included 123 studies. PRP's beneficial effects were observed in 46.7% of the clinical studies, while the absence of positive effects was observed in 43.3%. Among experimental studies, 73% yielded positive results, and 7.9% yielded negative results. The most frequent flaws in the clinical trials' designs were the lack of a true placebo group, poor product characterization, insufficient blinding, small sampling, short follow-up periods, and adoption of poor outcome measures. The methods employed for PRP preparation and administration and the selected outcome measures varied greatly. Poor study design was a common feature of equine clinical trials. From studies in which PRP had beneficial effects, 67.8% had an overall high risk of bias. From the studies in which PRP failed to exhibit beneficial effects, 67.8% had an overall low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Most experimental studies revealed positive effects of PRP. Although the majority of equine clinical studies yielded positive results, the human clinical trials' results failed to corroborate these findings. In both species, beneficial results were more frequently observed in studies with a high risk of bias. The use of PRP in musculoskeletal lesions, although safe and promising, has still not shown strong evidence in clinical scenarios.  
  Address Department of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. ptbrossi@uol.com.br. Department of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. ju_veterinaria@yahoo.com.br. Department of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. tsodrelima@gmail.com. Department of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. baccarin@usp.br.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/04/22  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Medline, PubMed, Embase, Bireme and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1338 Serial 2814  
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Author (up) Bui, C.; Bethmont, A.; Chughtai, A.A.; Gardner, L.; Sarkar, S.; Hassan, S.; Seale, H.; MacIntyre, C.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review of the comparative epidemiology of avian and human influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 – Lessons and unanswered questions Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Abbreviated Journal Transbound Emerg Dis  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Chickens; Poultry; Wild birds  
  Abstract The aim of this work was to explore the comparative epidemiology of influenza viruses, H5N1 and H7N9, in both bird and human populations. Specifically, the article examines similarities and differences between the two viruses in their genetic characteristics, distribution patterns in human and bird populations and postulated mechanisms of global spread. In summary, H5N1 is pathogenic in birds, while H7N9 is not. Yet both have caused sporadic human cases, without evidence of sustained, human-to-human spread. The number of H7N9 human cases in the first year following its emergence far exceeded that of H5N1 over the same time frame. Despite the higher incidence of H7N9, the spatial distribution of H5N1 within a comparable time frame is considerably greater than that of H7N9, both within China and globally. The pattern of spread of H5N1 in humans and birds around the world is consistent with spread through wild bird migration and poultry trade activities. In contrast, human cases of H7N9 and isolations of H7N9 in birds and the environment have largely occurred in a number of contiguous provinces in south-eastern China. Although rates of contact with birds appear to be similar in H5N1 and H7N9 cases, there is a predominance of incidental contact reported for H7N9 as opposed to close, high-risk contact for H5N1. Despite the high number of human cases of H7N9 and the assumed transmission being from birds, the corresponding level of H7N9 virus in birds in surveillance studies has been low, particularly in poultry farms. H7N9 viruses are also diversifying at a much greater rate than H5N1 viruses. Analyses of certain H7N9 strains demonstrate similarities with engineered transmissible H5N1 viruses which make it more adaptable to the human respiratory tract. These differences in the human and bird epidemiology of H5N1 and H7N9 raise unanswered questions as to how H7N9 has spread, which should be investigated further.  
  Address School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/02/04  
  ISSN 1865-1682 (Electronic) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Google Scholar and BIOSIS searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1319 Serial 2800  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Christensen, M.B.; Eriksen, T.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M. doi  openurl
  Title C-reactive protein: quantitative marker of surgical trauma and post-surgical complications in dogs: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Vet Scand  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 71  
  Keywords Dogs; Canine; C-reactive protein  
  Abstract C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase protein showing increasing serum concentrations in dogs with systemic inflammation following e.g., surgery, trauma, infections, or neoplasia. CRP is a useful diagnostic marker of systemic inflammation in dogs and automated assays have been validated for reliable measurements for routine diagnostic purposes. In the present study available evidence for the use of CRP as a marker of surgery related systemic inflammation in dogs was reviewed and assessed. Two main themes were in focus: (1) canine CRP as a potential marker of postsurgical infectious complications and (2) canine CRP as a marker of the degree of surgical trauma. As outlined in the review several studies suggest that CRP is a useful marker for both purposes. However, the evidence level is limited and studies in the field are all affected by considerable risks of bias. Thus, further studies are needed in order to confirm the assumptions from previous studies and increase the level of evidence for CRP as a useful marker for detecting inflammation after surgery in dogs.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Dyrlaegevej 16, 1870, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. mic@sund.ku.dk. Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Dyrlaegevej 16, 1870, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ter@sund.ku.dk. Novo Nordisk A/S, Novo Nordisk Park, 2760, Maaloev, Denmark. mdkh@novonordisk.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/10/21  
  ISSN 1751-0147 (Electronic) 0044-605X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, Agris, and CAB Abstract searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1380 Serial 2847  
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Author (up) Cortinovis, C.; Pizzo, F.; Caloni, F. doi  openurl
  Title Poisoning of dogs and cats by drugs intended for human use Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Veterinary Journal (London, England : 1997) Abbreviated Journal Vet J  
  Volume 203 Issue 1 Pages 52-58  
  Keywords Cats; Dogs; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract One of the main causes of poisoning of small animals is exposure to drugs intended for human use. Poisoning may result from misuse by pet owners, off-label use of medicines or, more frequently, accidental ingestion of drugs that are improperly stored. This review focuses on classes of drugs intended for human use that are most commonly involved in the poisoning of small animals and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. To perform this review a comprehensive search of public databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar) using key search terms was conducted. Additionally, relevant textbooks and reference lists of articles pertaining to the topic were reviewed to locate additional related articles. Most published information on small animal poisoning by drugs intended for human use was from animal and human poison control centres or from single case reports. The dog was the species most frequently poisoned. The major drugs involved included analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), antihistamines (H1-antihistamines), cardiovascular drugs (calcium channel blockers), central nervous system drugs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, baclofen, benzodiazepines and zolpidem), gastrointestinal drugs (loperamide), nutritional supplements (vitamin D and iron salts) and respiratory drugs (beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists).  
  Address Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety (VESPA), Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 10, 20133 Milan, Italy. Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety (VESPA), Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 10, 20133 Milan, Italy. Electronic address: francesca.caloni@unimi.it.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/12/06  
  ISSN 1532-2971 (Electronic) 1090-0233 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar searched. Database record copyright of CAB International 2010. Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1347 Serial 2820  
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Author (up) DeDonder, K.D.; Apley, M.D. doi  openurl
  Title A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Anim Health Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Anim Health Res Rev  
  Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 125-134  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovines; Bovine respiratory disease; Antimicrobial resistance  
  Abstract The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area.  
  Address Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology,Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine,KS 66506,USA. Clinical Sciences,Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine,KS 66506,USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/09/17  
  ISSN 1475-2654 (Electronic) 1466-2523 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1386 Serial 2852  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Denagamage, T.; Jayarao, B.; Patterson, P.; Wallner-Pendleton, E.; Kariyawasam, S. doi  openurl
  Title Risk Factors Associated With Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms: Systematic Review of Observational Studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Avian Diseases Abbreviated Journal Avian Dis  
  Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 291-302  
  Keywords Poultry; Chickens; Salmonella  
  Abstract Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evidence-based overview of potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination of laying hens, layer premises, and shell eggs. This systematic literature search was conducted using AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed databases. Observational studies that identified risk factors for Salmonella contamination of layer flocks and shell eggs were selected, and best evidence was synthesized to summarize the results. Altogether, 13 cross-sectional studies and four longitudinal studies published in English were included in the review. Evidence scores were assigned based on the study design and quality of the study to grade the evidence level. The strength of association of a risk factor was determined according to the odds ratios. In this systematic review, the presence of previous Salmonella infection, absence of cleaning and disinfection, presence of rodents, induced molting, larger flock size (>30,000 hens), multiage management, cage housing systems, in-line egg processing, rearing pullets on the floor, pests with access to feed prior to movement to the feed trough, visitors allowed in the layer houses, and trucks near farms and air inlets were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of laying hen premises, whereas high level of manure contamination, middle and late phase of production, high degree of egg-handling equipment contamination, flock size of >30,000, and egg production rate of >96% were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of shell eggs. These risk factors demonstrated strong to moderate evidence of association with Salmonella contamination of laying hens and shell eggs. Eggshells testing positive for Salmonella were 59 times higher when fecal samples were positive and nine times higher when floor dust samples were positive. Risk factors associated with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in laying hens were flock size, housing system, and farms with hens of different ages. As a summary, this systematic review demonstrated that Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs in layer production systems is multifactorial. This study provides a knowledge base for the implementation of targeted intervention strategies to control Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs.  
  Address A Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. B Department of Animal Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/10/17  
  ISSN 0005-2086 (Print) 0005-2086 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1381 Serial 2848  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Dominguez, M.; Munstermann, S.; de Guindos, I.; Timoney, P. doi  openurl
  Title Equine disease events resulting from international horse movements: systematic review and lessons learned Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Horses; Equine; International movement; Disease outbreaks  
  Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: An analysis of the factors leading to equine disease events was used to support the development of international recommendations for mitigating the risk of disease dissemination through sport horse movements (high health, high performance -“HHP” horses). OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was undertaken to identify the factors resulting in equine disease events following international movement of horses to draw lessons in support of the development of international recommendations for the safe movements of a specific subpopulation of horses: the HHP sport horses. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The review covered disease events that occurred from 1995 to 2014, identified from the databases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and international surveillance reports. RESULTS: Overall, 54 disease events were identified, of which 7 were contained in post-arrival quarantine and the others resulted in the introduction of pathogens into importing countries. For 81% of the introductions, the OIE recommendations applicable to the diseases involved had not been complied with. Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade: 88% of the regulated movements that resulted in introductions involved infected horses that showed no clinical signs at the time of import. Biosecurity and management practices in resident equine populations were identified as important mitigating factors in preventing disease spread to the local horse population. CONCLUSIONS: The global increase in international horse movements, if not appropriately regulated and supervised by competent Veterinary Authorities and respective equine industry partners, could potentially lead to increased global spread of infectious equine diseases. Appropriate mitigation measures and compliance with OIE import recommendations for specific diseases can significantly reduce this risk. The recommendations proposed under the HHP approach take into account the mitigation measures identified by this review as important factors in preventing pathogen introduction and spread. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address World Organisation for Animal Health O.I.E, 12 Rue de Prony, 75017, Paris, France. Veterinary Faculty, University of Complutense, Madrid, Spain. Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/10/29  
  ISSN 2042-3306 (Electronic) 0425-1644 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) databses and international surveillance reports searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1377 Serial 2844  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Dunkel, B.; Johns, I.C. doi  openurl
  Title Antimicrobial use in critically ill horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001) Abbreviated Journal J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio)  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 89-100  
  Keywords Horses; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To discuss controversies surrounding antimicrobial use in critically ill horses. DATA SOURCES: PubMed searches from 1970-present for terms including, but not limited to: “horse,” “foal,” “antimicrobial,” “prophylaxis,” “infection,” “surgery,” “sepsis,” and “antimicrobial resistance.” HUMAN DATA SYNTHESIS: Increasing bacterial antimicrobial resistance has changed first-line antimicrobial choices and prompted shortening of the duration of prophylactic and therapeutic treatment. The need to decrease bacterial resistance development to critically important antimicrobials has been highlighted. VETERINARY DATA SYNTHESIS: Veterinary medicine has followed a similar trend but often without a high-level evidence. Common dilemmas include diseases in which the theoretically most effective drug is a reserved antimicrobial, the inability to differentiate infectious from noninfectious disease, the duration and necessity of prophylactic antimicrobials and use of antimicrobials in primary gastrointestinal disease. These problems are illustrated using examples of purulent infections, neonatal sepsis, colic surgery, and treatment of colitis. Although enrofloxacin, cephalosporins, and doxycycline, in contrast to gentamicin, reach therapeutic concentrations within the lungs of healthy horses, the first two should not be used as first line treatment due to their reserved status. Due to the high risk of bacterial sepsis, antimicrobial treatment remains indispensable in compromised neonatal foals but shortening the length of antimicrobial treatment might be prudent. One prospective randomized study demonstrated no difference between 3 and 5 days of perioperative antimicrobial treatment in colic surgery but shorter durations were not evaluated. High-level evidence to recommend antimicrobial treatment of adult horses with undifferentiated diarrhea does not exist. CONCLUSIONS: Few evidence-based recommendations can be made. Commonly used antimicrobial combinations remain the mainstay for treating purulent infections. Antimicrobial treatment for compromised foals should not extend beyond recovery. Continuation of prophylactic antimicrobials >3 days is likely unnecessary after colic surgery; shorter durations might be equally effective. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in adult horses with diarrhea is unlikely to be beneficial.  
  Address Department of Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertforshire, United Kingdom, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/01/15  
  ISSN 1476-4431 (Electronic) 1476-4431 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010. Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1348 Serial 2821  
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