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Author Rabiee, A.R.; Lean, I.J.; Stevenson, M.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A Bayesian meta-analysis of the effects of administering an intra-vaginal (CIDR) device in combination with other hormones on the reproductive performance of cycling, anoestrous and inseminated cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication New Zealand Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal N Z Vet J  
  Volume 52 Issue 6 Pages 384-393  
  Keywords Cattle  
  Abstract AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment programmes that included controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) devices containing progesterone (P4) in improving synchrony of oestrus, and conception and pregnancy rates in cycling, anoestrous and inseminated dairy cows, using meta-analysis. To describe the difference in response between cycling and anoestrous cows to CIDR-based synchrony programmes. METHODS: Scientific papers written in the English language between 1989 and 2002 that investigated the effects of treatment programmes including CIDR devices on reproductive performance in dairy heifers or lactating dairy cows were identified using a computerised literature search. The criteria for inclusion incorporated evidence that treatment allocation was completely randomised; the population studied was lactating dairy cows; and that data were available on submission, conception and pregnancy rates and their associated measures of variability. Reproductive outcomes from 25 synchrony trials (total n=11,058 cows) were analysed. Summary measures of the effect of treatment on reproductive outcome were assessed using fixed- and random-effects Bayesian meta-analysis models. RESULTS: Treatment programmes including a CIDR device increased the risk of submission in cycling cows (predicted Bayesian RR=2.86, 95% credible interval=1.46-5.67). Compared with controls, synchrony programmes including CIDR devices in cycling dairy cows had no effect on the risk of conception to first service post-treatment (predicted Bayesian RR=1.00, 95% credible interval=0.80-1.24). Compared with controls, synchrony programmes including CIDR devices had no effect on the risk of pregnancy throughout the mating period (predicted Bayesian RR=1.02, 95% credible interval=0.89-1.17). In anoestrous cows, CIDR treatment had no effect on the risk of conception to first service post-treatment and no effect on the risk of pregnancy throughout the mating period, compared with anoestrous, untreated controls (predicted Bayesian RR=0.91 and 0.97, respectively; 95% credible interval=0.68-1.26 and 0.59-1.60, respectively). CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis showed that synchrony programmes using CIDR devices combined with other hormones reliably enhanced submission rates in lactating dairy cows. The relatively small number of trials with data suitable for analysis and the heterogeneity of results at the individual trial level limited our ability to confirm either a beneficial or deleterious effect of treatment on conception or pregnancy rates. Further randomised, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of this form of reproductive therapy in commercial dairy farms are needed.  
  Address Bovine Research Australasia, PO Box 660, Camden 2570, NSW, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2005/03/16  
  ISSN 0048-0169 (Print) 0048-0169 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB (Abstracts?) , BA abstracts (Biological Abstracts?), PubMed and ScienceDirect searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 758 Serial 2562  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sannmann, I.; Arlt, S.; Heuwieser, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A critical evaluation of diagnostic methods used to identify dairy cows with acute post-partum metritis in the current literature Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Dairy Research Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Res  
  Volume 79 Issue 4 Pages 436-444  
  Keywords Acute Disease; Animals; Body Temperature; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/diagnosis; Digital Rectal Examination/veterinary; Endometritis/diagnosis/microbiology/veterinary; Female; Puerperal Disorders/diagnosis/veterinary; Vaginal Discharge/veterinary; Veterinary Medicine/methods  
  Abstract The overall objective of this study was to investigate how relevant research publications address the validity of diagnostic methods for acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows, a disease commonly treated with antibiotic drugs. Therefore, a literature search was conducted in Journal of Dairy Science, Theriogenology, Animal Reproduction Science and The Veterinary Journal utilizing the ScienceDirect database. The search revealed 259 articles addressing APM. After applying exclusion criteria, a total of 48 trials remained. It was determined whether the author gave a clear definition of APM, the time of diagnosis relative to calving, and the person who performed the diagnosis. Studies were checked for the presence of definitions of possible findings, thresholds, and test characteristics of the methods used. Overall 9 different diagnostic methods were employed. On average 2.5 +/- 1.75 diagnostic methods were used in a study. References to support the use of the diagnostic methods were provided in 10 of 48 articles (20.8%). Vaginal discharge, transrectal palpation and rectal temperature were examined in 39, 22, and 21 of the studies, respectively. Thresholds for diagnostic tests and test characteristics were mentioned in 6 and 3 of the 48 articles, respectively. Based on this systematic review of 48 research papers the evidence supporting the use of the diagnostic methods to identify cows with APM has either been not reported or is weak. In conclusion, the reporting of the diagnostic methods to identify cows with APM needs to be improved and further high-quality research is necessary to improve diagnostic performance of the methods employed.  
  Address Clinic for Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/09/12  
  ISSN 1469-7629 (Electronic) 0022-0299 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Science Direct searched – articles from four journals as convenience sample Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1095 Serial 2590  
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Author Baltzell, P.; Newton, H.; O'Connor, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A critical review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of whole-cell killed Tritrichomonas foetus vaccines in beef cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Vet Intern Med  
  Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 760-770  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/prevention & control; Protozoan Infections, Animal/prevention & control; Protozoan Vaccines/immunology; Tritrichomonas/immunology; Protozoan Vaccines  
  Abstract This review assesses the efficacy of whole cell Tritrichomonas foetus vaccine to prevent and treat trichomoniasis in beef cattle. Three databases were searched in June 2012. Eligible studies compared infection risk, open risk, and abortion risk in heifers or infection risk in bulls that received vaccine compared with no vaccine. Study results were extracted, summary effect measures were calculated, and the quality of the evidence was assessed. From 334 citations identified, 10 were relevant to the review. For heifers, there was limited evidence of moderate quality to assess the impact of vaccination on infection risk (RR, 0.89; P = .16; 95% CI, 0.76-1.05; 6 randomized and 4 nonrandomized studies; 251 animals) and open risk (RR, 0.80; P = .06; 95% CI, 0.63-1.01; 6 randomized and 5 nonrandomized studies; 570 animals). The quality of the body of work describing the impact of vaccination on abortion risk was low (summary RR, 0.57; P = .0003; 95% CI, 0.42-0.78; 3 randomized and 2 nonrandomized studies; 176 animals). The quality of evidence was very low for duration of infection (mean difference, -23.42; P = .003; 95% CI, -38.36 to -7.85; 2 randomized and 3 nonrandomized studies; 163 animals). Although the summary effect measures suggest a benefit to vaccination, due to publication bias the effect reported here is likely an over estimate of efficacy. For bull-associated outcomes, the evidence base was low or very low quality.  
  Address Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2013/05/25  
  ISSN 1939-1676 (Electronic) 0891-6640 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, CAB Abstracts, and AGRICOLA searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1104 Serial 2348  
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Author Baltzell, P.; Engelken, T.; O'Connor, A.M. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A critical review and meta-analysis of the magnitude of the effect of anthelmintic use on stocker calf production parameters in Northern US States Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Veterinary Parasitology Abbreviated Journal Vet Parasitol  
  Volume 214 Issue 1-2 Pages 2-11  
  Keywords Cattle; Calves; Bovines; Anthelmintics  
  Abstract Parasitism of the gastrointestinal tract of cattle leads to diminished health and productivity of grazing livestock. Anthelmintics are used to decrease parasite loads in cattle for improved weight gain. This critical review and meta-analysis aims to quantify the magnitude of the effect of use of anthelmintic products on production metrics in beef stocker calves. Four databases were searched in March 2013. Eligible studies compared average daily gain (ADG), or weight gain in stocker calves in northern climates of the United States that received anthelmintic treatments compared with placebo or an alternative anthelmintic treatment. Study results were extracted, and where possible, summary effect measures were calculated. Of 512 citations identified by the search, 9 manuscripts with 23 relevant individual studies were selected. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies included in the review and assessed to be unclear for the majority of the studies. There were 23 studies that assessed the magnitude of effect of anthelmintic use on ADG (summary mean difference in ADG=0.05kg (50g), 95% CI=0.03-0.07kg, p<0.00001). The magnitude of weight gain associated with anthelmintic use could not be assessed, as measures of precision (standard errors or standard deviations) were not reported in these studies. Overall, the conclusion was made that anthelmintic use is associated with an increased weight gain. However, the approach to reporting employed by authors for this type of study means that many studies could not be included in the meta-analysis and the magnitude of effect not determined.  
  Address Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States. Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States. Electronic address: oconnor@iastate.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/09/29  
  ISSN 1873-2550 (Electronic) 0304-4017 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews, PubMed, Agricola and WorldCat searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1384 Serial 2851  
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Author Wolf, J.C.; Wheeler, J.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A critical review of histopathological findings associated with endocrine and non-endocrine hepatic toxicity in fish models Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Aquatic Toxicology Abbreviated Journal Aquat Toxicol  
  Volume 197 Issue Pages 60-78  
  Keywords Fish; Toxicoloy; Endocrine; Liver  
  Abstract Although frequently examined as a target organ for non-endocrine toxicity, histopathological evaluation of the liver is becoming a routine component of endocrine disruption studies that utilize various fish species as test subjects. However, the interpretation of microscopic liver findings can be challenging, especially when attempting to distinguish adverse changes associated with endocrine disrupting substances from those caused by systemic or direct hepatic toxicity. The purpose of this project was to conduct a critical assessment of the available peer-reviewed and grey literature concerning the histopathologic effects of reproductive endocrine active substances (EAS) and non-endocrine acting substances in the livers of fish models, and to determine if liver histopathology can be used to reliably distinguish endocrine from non-endocrine etiologies. The results of this review suggest that few compound-specific histopathologic liver effects have been identified, among which are estrogen agonist-induced increases in hepatocyte basophilia and proteinaceous intravascular fluid in adult male teleosts, and potentially, decreased hepatocyte basophilia in female fish exposed to substances that possess androgenic, anti-estrogenic, or aromatase inhibitory activity. This review also used published standardized methodology to assess the credibility of the histopathology data in each of the 117 articles that reported liver effects of treatment, and consequently it was determined that in only 37% of those papers were the data considered either highly credible or credible. The outcome of this work highlights the value of histopathologic liver evaluation as an investigative tool for EAS studies, and provides information that may have implications for EAS hazard assessment.  
  Address Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc., 45600 Terminal Drive, Sterling, VA, 20166, USA. Electronic address: jwolf@epl-inc.com. Dow AgroSciences, 3 B Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OK14 4RN, UK. Electronic address: jrwheeler@dow.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2018/02/16  
  ISSN 1879-1514 (Electronic) 0166-445X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed database and Google Scholar searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1677 Serial 2932  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Finka, L.R.; Ellis, S.L.; Stavisky, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A critically appraised topic (CAT) to compare the effects of single and multi-cat housing on physiological and behavioural measures of stress in domestic cats in confined environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 73  
  Keywords Animals; Cat Diseases/etiology; Cat Diseases/prevention & control; Cats/physiology; Cats/psychology; Housing, Animal/standards; Stress, Psychological/etiology; Stress, Psychological/prevention & control; Cats  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Domestic cats have evolved from solitary, asocial predators and whilst they may display social behaviours, they can still exist as solitary survivors. Over-population and relinquishment of pet cats are ubiquitous problems worldwide, and rehoming centres (also known as rescues/ shelters) aim to ameliorate this by holding cats in confinement for a variable period until a new home is found. The provision of optimal housing for large numbers of cats in close confinement, such as in rehoming centres, is therefore inherently difficult. Under these conditions there is the potential for individuals to develop signs of physical and psychological ill health, and thus experience compromised welfare. Available information regarding housing practices that maximise welfare currently provides conflicting results, and as a consequence there are no unanimous housing recommendations. The aim of this study was therefore to review the evidence on the impact of single housing compared to multi-cat housing on stress in confined cats, as measured by physiological and/or behavioural outcomes. The review was conducted using a Critically Appraised Topic (CAT) format. A systematic search of electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Zoological Records and Medline) was carried out to identify peer-reviewed literature comparing single and multi-cat housing in confined environments. RESULTS: A total of 959 papers were initially identified, six of which met sufficient criteria based on their relevance to be included within this review. All of the studies had significant limitations in design and methodology, including a lack of information on how groups were assigned, inconsistent handling and enrichment provision between groups, and lack of information on the socialisation status of cats. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst some studies suggested that single housing may be less stressful for cats, others suggested group housing was less stressful. Several other important factors were however identified as potential mediators of stress within the different housing systems, and recommendations based upon these findings are presented.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/03/25  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, Zoological Record and MEDLINE searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1210 Serial 2701  
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Author Potterton, S.L.; Bell, N.J.; Whay, H.R.; Berry, E.A.; Atkinson, O.C.; Dean, R.S.; Main, D.C.; Huxley, J.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A descriptive review of the peer and non-peer reviewed literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published between 2000 and 2011 Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Veterinary Journal (London, England : 1997) Abbreviated Journal Vet J  
  Volume 193 Issue 3 Pages 612-616  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/physiopathology/prevention & control/therapy; Dairying/methods; Female; Foot Diseases/physiopathology/prevention & control/therapy/veterinary; Lameness, Animal/physiopathology/prevention & control/therapy  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to collate and review the peer and non-peer reviewed English language literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published since January 2000. The study aimed to identify deficits in knowledge and areas of disparity between what is recommended in the field by veterinarians, foot trimmers and advisors and what has been substantiated experimentally. Peer reviewed literature containing original work was gathered by searching three databases. Papers were categorised and reviewed if they contained material on treatment or prevention. Non-peer reviewed clinical materials were collated from a range of sources. The materials were reviewed and categorised based on whether they recommended a range of possible treatment and prevention strategies. The peer reviewed data base contained 591 papers, of which 286 contained information on treatment or prevention. The vast majority of papers (258) concerned prevention; only a small number covered treatment (31) and of these only three contained information on the treatment of sole ulcers or white line disease. The number of intervention studies and trials was low; most papers on prevention were observational. Generally, lesion specific outcomes were not described making the findings of these papers difficult to use clinically. The non-peer reviewed material contained 46 sources; they varied significantly in regard to the treatments they advocated with some texts directly contradicting each other. Some aspects of prevention recommended in these sources seemed poorly supported by findings from the research literature. Well designed intervention studies are required to address these deficits.  
  Address University of Nottingham, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Sutton Bonington Campus, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/09/07  
  ISSN 1532-2971 (Electronic) 1090-0233 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science and OVID SP (MEDLINE?) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 878 Serial 2558  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author DeDonder, K.D.; Apley, M.D. doi  openurl
  Title (up) A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Anim Health Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Anim Health Res Rev  
  Volume 16 Issue 2 Pages 125-134  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovines; Bovine respiratory disease; Antimicrobial resistance  
  Abstract The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area.  
  Address Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology,Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine,KS 66506,USA. Clinical Sciences,Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine,KS 66506,USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/09/17  
  ISSN 1475-2654 (Electronic) 1466-2523 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1386 Serial 2852  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kristensen, C.S.; Baadsgaard, N.P.; Toft, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis comparing the effect of PCV2 vaccines on average daily weight gain and mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 250-258  
  Keywords Animals; Circoviridae Infections/prevention & control; Circovirus/immunology; Female; Male; Mortality; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/prevention & control; Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage; Weaning; Weight Gain; Swine; Pigs  
  Abstract The aim of this investigation was, through a meta-analysis, to review the published literature concerning the effect of PCV2 vaccination on the average daily weight gain (ADG) and on the mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter. The review was restricted to studies investigating the effect of vaccines against PCV2 published from 2006 to 2008, identified using computerised literature databases. Only studies that met the following criteria were included: commercial vaccines were used, pigs or pens were assigned randomly to vaccination versus control groups in herds naturally infected with PCV2, and vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs were housed together. Furthermore, it was a requirement that sample size, age at vaccination, and production period were stated. The levels of ADG and mortality rate had to be comparable to those seen in modern intensive swine production. In total, 107 studies were identified; 70 were excluded because they did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and 13 were identical to results published elsewhere. A significant effect of PCV2 vaccination on ADG was found for pigs in all production phases. The largest increase in ADG was found for finishing pigs (41.5g) and nursery-finishing pigs (33.6g) with only 10.6g increase in the nursery pigs. Mortality rate was significantly reduced for finishing pigs (4.4%) and nursery-finishing pigs (5.4%), but not for nursery pigs (0.25%). Herds negative for PRRS had a significantly larger increase in ADG compared to herds positive for PRRS. The PRRS status had no effect on mortality rate.  
  Address Danish Agriculture and Food Council, Pig Research Centre, Vinkelvej 11, DK-8620 Kjellerup, Denmark. csk@lf.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/01/18  
  ISSN 1873-1716 (Electronic) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes AGRICOLA, AGRIS International, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts Online, Inside Conferences, MEDLINE, PASCAL, SciSearch and Wilson Biological & Agricultural Index searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 697 Serial 2476  
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Author Jensen, C.S.; Ersboll, A.K.; Nielsen, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis comparing the effect of vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on daily weight gain in pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 54 Issue 3 Pages 265-278  
  Keywords Animals; Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage/immunology; Clinical Trials as Topic; Mycoplasma/immunology; Mycoplasma Infections/immunology/microbiology/prevention & control/veterinary; Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology/microbiology/prevention & control/veterinary; Swine/immunology/ microbiology; Swine Diseases/immunology/microbiology/prevention & control; Vaccination; Weight Gain; Swine; Pigs  
  Abstract Our aims were to evaluate the published literature concerning the effect of swine vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on the average daily weight gain (ADWG). This was done by re-evaluating the influence of selected factors on ADWG by a meta-analysis of published studies from 1991 to 1999, fulfilling certain inclusion criteria. With ADWG as the outcome, an analysis of variance was performed for such variables as treatment, vaccination schedule, age during study, housing system and publication quality. Each clinical trial was considered as a random effect and the numbers of pigs in each trial were weightings. Of 63 published studies, 16 describing three commercial vaccines fulfilled the criteria for the meta-analysis. Due to few studies with one of the vaccines (n=3), only two vaccines were included. Vaccinated pigs gained an average of 592g (S.E.=15) with Stellamune and 590g (S.E.=15) with Suvaxyne compared to non-vaccinated pigs that gained an average of 569g (S.E.=14)(P<0.01) when adjusted for age during the study. Vaccine type, vaccination schedule, housing system and publication quality were not significantly associated with ADWG.  
  Address Department of Clinical Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Dyrlaegevej 88, DK-1870 C, Frederiksberg, Denmark. csj@kvl.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2002/07/13  
  ISSN 0167-5877 (Print) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Biological Abstracts/RRM, AGRIS, CAB (Abstracts?), Current Contents, AGRICOLA and MEDLINE searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 691 Serial 2461  
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Author Arena, M.; Sgolastra, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis comparing the sensitivity of bees to pesticides Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Ecotoxicology (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Ecotoxicology  
  Volume 23 Issue 3 Pages 324-34  
  Keywords Bees; Honey bees  
  Abstract The honey bee Apis mellifera, the test species used in the current environmental risk assessment procedure, is generally considered as extremely sensitive to pesticides when compared to other bee species, although a quantitative approach for comparing the difference in sensitivity among bees has not yet been reported. A systematic review of the relevant literature on the topic followed by a meta-analysis has been performed. Both the contact and oral acute LD50 and the chronic LC50 reported in laboratory studies for as many substances as possible have been extracted from the papers in order to compare the sensitivity to pesticides of honey bees and other bee species (Apiformes). The sensitivity ratio R between the endpoint for the species a (A. mellifera) and the species s (bees other than A. mellifera) was calculated for a total of 150 case studies including 19 bee species. A ratio higher than 1 indicated that the species s was more sensitive to pesticides than honey bees. The meta-analysis showed a high variability of sensitivity among bee species (R from 0.001 to 2085.7), however, in approximately 95 % of the cases the sensitivity ratio was below 10. The effect of pesticides in domestic and wild bees is dependent on the intrinsic sensitivity of single bee species as well as their specific life cycle, nesting activity and foraging behaviour. Current data indicates a need for more comparative information between honey bees and non-Apis bees as well as separate pesticide risk assessment procedures for non-Apis bees.  
  Address Pesticides Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), via Carlo Magno 1/A, 43126, Parma, Italy.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/01/18  
  ISSN 1573-3017 (Electronic) 0963-9292 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, CAB Abstracts, FSTA, MEDLINE 1950-2013 and Journal Citation Reports searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1193 Serial 2687  
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Author Klevenhusen, F.; Muro-Reyes, A.; Khiaosa-Ard, R.; Metzler-Zebeli, B.U.; Zebeli, Q. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of effects of chemical composition of incubated diet and bioactive compounds on in vitro ruminal fermentation Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Animal Feed Science and Technology Abbreviated Journal Anim Feed Sci Tech  
  Volume 176 Issue 1 Pages 61-69  
  Keywords Animal Nutrition (General) [LL500]; Animal Nutrition (Physiology) [LL510]; Techniques and Methodology [ZZ900]; Forage and Feed Products (Non-human) [RR000]; ammonia; animal nutrition; chemical composition; composition; correlation analysis; crude protein; data analysis; diet; diets; dry matter; essential oils; estimation; fatty acids; feeds; fermentation; fibre; in vitro; meta-analysis; oils; research; rumen; rumen fermentation; rumen fluid; techniques; volatile fatty acids; feeding stuffs; fiber; studies; cattle; ruminants; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract This study examined the role of supplementation of several bioactive compounds (BC) and the chemical composition of the diet used as substrate for in vitro incubations, on in vitro ruminal fermentation profile and nutrient degradation. A meta-analytical approach was used to weigh the sample size used in each experiment, and account for the random effect of each as well as unequal variance among studies. A total of 20 recently conducted experiments with 354 treatments, each including one control (i.e., no BC supplementation), fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Doses of BC supplementation varied from 0.03 to 500 mg/g dry matter (DM) of incubated diet. Contents of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of the incubated diets (DM basis) ranged from 139 to 189 g/kg and 160 to 420 g/kg, respectively. Results indicate that supplementation of BC linearly decreased (137.4 versus 116.5 mmol/L; P<0.05) concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and proportion of acetate (P<0.05). Also, the concentration of ammonia in the in vitro rumen fluid was lower with BC supplementation (22.9 versus 15.6 mg/dL; P<0.05). Analysis by backward elimination correlation analysis revealed that inclusion of the chemical composition of the incubated diet into the model with BC supplementation improved the accuracy of estimation of responses of fermentation variables. Thus, higher NDF and CP contents of the substrate and higher BC dosage were associated with lower concentrations of total VFA (r2=0.54), whereas both lower CP contents of the substrate and BC supplementation lowered the concentration of ammonia (r2=0.32). This analysis showed negative associations between BC supplementation and in vitro disappearance of DM and NDF, and positive correlations with dietary NDF content. In contrast, higher BC inclusion and lowering NDF content in the diet was accompanied with decreased in vitro CH4 formation (r2=0.21). Results indicate that BC supplementation and chemical composition of the incubated diet are determining factors which impact responses of in vitro ruminal fermentation and degradation.  
  Address Institute of Animal Nutrition, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, Vetmeduni Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria. qendrim.zebeli@vetmeduni.ac.at  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0377-8401 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Google Scholar, Sciencedirect and Scopus searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 575 Serial 2471  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Miguel, E.; Grosbois, V.; Berthouly-Salazar, C.; Caron, A.; Cappelle, J.; Roger, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies of Newcastle disease in African agro-systems, 1980-2009 Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Epidemiology and Infection Abbreviated Journal Epidemiol Infect  
  Volume 141 Issue 6 Pages 1117-1133  
  Keywords Africa/epidemiology; Agriculture/statistics & numerical data; Animals; Chickens/virology; Disease Outbreaks/veterinary; Geography; Newcastle Disease/epidemiology; Population Density; Poultry/virology; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Chickens; Poultry  
  Abstract Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important and widespread avian pests. In Africa, backyard poultry production systems are an important source of protein and cash for poor rural livelihoods. ND mortality in these production systems is important and seriously disrupts benefits derived from it. This study undertook an African continental approach of ND epidemiology in backyard poultry. After a systematic literature review of studies published from 1980 to 2009, a meta-analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of serological prevalence and outbreak occurrence was performed. Average ND serological prevalence was estimated at 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.75] in regions characterized by humid ecosystems, high human and poultry densities and low altitudes; 0.36 (95% CI 0.30-0.41) in dry ecosystems at intermediate altitude where human and poultry densities are low and 0.27 (95% CI 0.19-0.38) in mountain ecosystems where human and poultry densities are intermediate. In terms of seasonality, ND outbreaks occur mostly during the dry seasons in Africa, when environmental conditions are likely to be harshest for backyard poultry. In addition, a phylogeographical analysis revealed the regionalization of ND virus strains, their potential to evolve towards a higher pathogenicity from the local viral pool and suggests a risk for vaccine strains to provide new wild strains. These results present for the first time a continent-wide approach to ND epidemiology in Africa. More emphasis is needed for ND management and control in rural African poultry production systems.  
  Address CIRAD, AGIRs Research Unit (Animal and Integrated Risk Management, UPR22), TA-C 22/E Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier, France. eve.miguel@cirad.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/12/12  
  ISSN 1469-4409 (Electronic) 0950-2688 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, Agritrop (Cirad), OIE, Google Scholar and ACIAR (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1130 Serial 2507  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Moller, A.P.; Arriero, E.; Lobato, E.; Merino, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of parasite virulence in nestling birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc  
  Volume 84 Issue 4 Pages 567-588  
  Keywords Animals; Bird Diseases/parasitology; Birds; Parasites/pathogenicity; Parasitic Diseases, Animal/mortality/parasitology; Virulence  
  Abstract Parasitism is a common cause of host mortality, but little is known about the ecological factors affecting parasite virulence (the rate of mortality among infected hosts). We reviewed 117 field estimates of parasite-induced nestling mortality in birds, showing that there was significant consistency in mortality among host and parasite taxa. Virulence increased towards the tropics in analyses of both species-specific data and phylogenetic analyses. We found evidence of greater parasite prevalence being associated with reduced virulence. Furthermore, bird species breeding in open nest sites suffered from greater parasite-induced mortality than hole-nesting species. By contrast, parasite specialization and generation time of parasites relative to that of hosts explained little variation in virulence. Likewise, there were little or no significant effects of host genetic variability, host sociality, host migration, host insular distribution or host survival on parasite virulence. These findings suggest that parasite-induced nestling mortality in birds is mainly determined by geographical location and to a smaller extent nest site and prevalence.  
  Address Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 362, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France. anders.moller@u-psud.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2009/08/14  
  ISSN 1469-185X (Electronic) 0006-3231 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes BIOSIS and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 470 Serial 2515  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Peters, A.R.; Martinez, T.A.; Cook, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of studies of the effect of GnRH 11-14 days after insemination on pregnancy rates in cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Theriogenology Abbreviated Journal Theriogenology  
  Volume 54 Issue 8 Pages 1317-1326  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle/physiology; Female; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/administration & dosage; Insemination/physiology; Logistic Models; Odds Ratio; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Rate; Regression Analysis; Cattle  
  Abstract A number of studies have used GnRH between 11 and 14 days after insemination to improve pregnancy rates in cows, however published results have not been consistent. We wished to investigate whether a consolidated estimate of the response could be quantified. Therefore we conducted a meta-analysis of the available data, 19 studies from 14 published papers, on the effect of GnRH analogs on pregnancy rate when given between Days 11 and 14 after first insemination. Odds ratios (the relative probability of pregnancy between treated and control cows) were compared for each study and found to vary significantly among studies, ranging from 0 to 22%. We showed by logistic regression analysis that response to GnRH treatment varied with cow type (beef or dairy), age (cow or heifer), estrus synchronization (synchronized or natural), pregnancy diagnosis (method and time) and effect of individual study. When all these variables were included only 6 of 14 publications could be analyzed, representing 2,541 instead of 10,945 cows. In this limited subgroup of data, a significant improvement in pregnancy rate was detected among treated cattle (odds ratio = 1.33; P<0.01).  
  Address Department of Farm Animal and Equine Medicine and Surgery, Royal Veterinary College Hatfield, Herts, UK.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2001/02/24  
  ISSN 0093-691X (Print) 0093-691X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB (Abstracts?) and MEDLINE searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 750 Serial 2552  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mills, D.S.; Redgate, S.E.; Landsberg, G.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of studies of treatments for feline urine spraying Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages e18448  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Cat Diseases/therapy; Cats/physiology; Clinical Trials as Topic/veterinary; Clomipramine/pharmacology; Fluoxetine/pharmacology; Follow-Up Studies; Pheromones/pharmacology; Placebos; Treatment Outcome; Urination/drug effects/physiology; Cats  
  Abstract Feline urine spraying inside the home is a common problem behaviour that owners seek advice for from veterinarians. Individual trials relating to a variety of interventions produce variable results, and to date, no consensus on the value of different treatments has emerged. This study therefore aimed to meta-analyse, current data from appropriate published clinical trials that evaluate treatments for feline urine spraying.Inclusion and exclusion criteria for study selection were predefined and methodological quality was assessed by two independent reviewers. Ten studies in nine publications that either evaluated pharmacotherapy or pheromonatherapy (the use of a synthetic analogue of the F3 facial fraction in the cat) were suitable for analysis. There was a significant (P<0.001) association between the use of any intervention and the number of cats that ceased or reduced urine spraying by at least 90%. Analysis by intervention type indicated that fluoxetine, clomipramine and pheromonatherapy may each assist in managing urine spraying beyond a placebo based intervention.This is the first time meta-analytical techniques have been used and reported to evaluate the efficacy of interventions used in veterinary behavioural medicine, and it has established confidence in the value of both conventional treatments (pharmacotherapy) and a more recently developed treatment modality (pheromonatherapy) as an adjunct to the management of this problem. It is suggested that future research into treatment efficacy for this problem uses the benchmark standard of randomised, controlled trials lasting for at least 8 weeks, with the outcome criteria of cessation of feline urine spraying or reduction by at least 90%.  
  Address Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom. dmills@lincoln.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/04/29  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?), Ingenta Connect, Science Direct and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 721 Serial 2512  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, K.H. de; Edge, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaun, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of the combined effect of housing and environmental enrichment characteristics on the behaviour and performance of pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl Anim Behav Sci  
  Volume 127 Issue 3/4 Pages 73-85  
  Keywords Animal Behaviour [LL300]; Meat Producing Animals [LL120]; analysis; animal behaviour; animal housing; determination; effects; enrichment; estimation; group size; models; productivity; social behaviour; pigs; Sus scrofa; Sus; Suidae; Suiformes; Artiodactyla; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; ungulates; eukaryotes; animal behavior; behavior; hogs; social behavior; swine; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract To quantify the combined effect of housing conditions and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and performance of pigs, a meta-analysis was performed using information from 45 experiments in 42 published manuscripts. Multiple regression models were applied to evaluate the effects of space allowance per pig (k-value; m2/BW0.667), group size (n), floor characteristics (solid, partly, or totally slatted floor), bedding (presence or absence), and the number and presentation sequence of point-source objects (no object, one object, two simultaneous objects, two alternated objects, three or more simultaneous objects or three or more alternated objects) on the general activity, enrichment and object-directed exploratory behaviour, social behaviour, and productive performance. A non-linear relationship between space allowance per pig and time spent sitting and lying was found (P<0.10 and P<0.01 for the k-value and its quadratic term respectively). Total time spent in exploration increased with space allowance per pig when bedding was present (P<0.01), and time spent exploring other pen items decreased with increasing space allowance per pig if no bedding was provided (P<0.001). Total time spent in exploration increased with group size (P<0.001). The lowest predicted total exploration time (least squares mean+or-standard error) was found in the absence of bedding and point-source objects (13+or-3%; P<0.05), and the highest when bedding (18+or-3%) or point-source objects (19+or-3%) were present. Time exploring point-source objects was higher when different objects were provided (P<0.001). Suspended (P<0.05) and deformable (P<0.05) enrichment items increased the time spent manipulating them. Time spent exploring point-source objects was predicted to be higher in the absence of slats and bedding (32+or-6%; P<0.05), and lower when bedding (8+or-9%) or slats (12+or-4%) were present. Time engaged in negative social behaviours decreased in the presence of point-source objects (P<0.01), and increased with group size in the absence of bedding (P<0.001). Time engaged in positive social behaviours tended to decrease in the presence of point-source objects (P<0.10), and when space allowance per pig increased in the absence of bedding (P<0.10). Slight trends towards lower FCR were predicted when point-source objects (P<0.10) and bedding (P=0.10) were present. This information can be utilised in the determination of the general effects of production systems on the welfare of pigs as well as in the development of new production systems.  
  Address INRA, UMR1079 Systemes d'Elevage Nutrition Animale et Humaine, F-35590 Saint-Gilles, France. Xavier.Averos@rennes.inra.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?) searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 289 Serial 2343  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mitchell, R.M.; Medley, G.F.; Collins, M.T.; Schukken, Y.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of the effect of dose and age at exposure on shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in experimentally infected calves and cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Epidemiology and Infection Abbreviated Journal Epidemiol Infect  
  Volume 140 Issue 2 Pages 231-246  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/epidemiology/microbiology/transmission; Disease Transmission, Infectious/veterinary; Feces/virology; Female; Models, Biological; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification; Paratuberculosis/epidemiology/microbiology/transmission  
  Abstract A meta-analysis was performed using all published and one unpublished long-term infection-challenge experiments to quantify the age- and dose-dependence of early and late shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle. There were 194 animals from 17 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 173 received a known dose of MAP and 21 were exposed naturally. Results from parametric time-to-event models indicated that challenging older calves or using multiple-exposure experimental systems resulted in a smaller proportion and shorter duration of early shedding as well as slower transition to late shedding from latent compartments. Calves exposed naturally showed variable infection progression rates, not dissimilar to other infection routes. The log-normal distribution was most appropriate for modelling infection-progression events. The infection pattern revealed by the modelling allowed better understanding of low-grade endemicity of MAP in cattle, and the parameter estimates are the basis for future transmission dynamics modelling.  
  Address Quality Milk Production Services, Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. rmm37@cornell.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/04/29  
  ISSN 1469-4409 (Electronic) 0950-2688 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1084 Serial 2513  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Dias, R.S.; Lopez, S.; Montanholi, Y.R.; Smith, B.; Haas, L.S.; Miller, S.P.; France, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of the effects of dietary copper, molybdenum, and sulfur on plasma and liver copper, weight gain, and feed conversion in growing-finishing cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 91 Issue 12 Pages 5714-5723  
  Keywords Cattle; Animal Feed/analysis; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Body Composition/drug effects; Cattle/blood; Cattle/growth & development; Cattle/metabolism; Copper/blood; Copper/chemistry; Copper/pharmacology; Diet/veterinary; Liver/chemistry; Molybdenum/chemistry; Molybdenum/pharmacology; Sulfur/chemistry; Sulfur/pharmacology; Weight Gain/drug effects; Sulfur; Copper; Molybdenum  
  Abstract The minerals Cu, Mo, and S are essential for metabolic functions related to cattle health and performance. The interaction between Cu, Mo, and S can determine the utilization of each mineral, in particular Cu, by ruminants. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary Cu, Mo, and S and their interactions on plasma and liver Cu, ADG, and G:F in growing-finishing cattle. Data were collated from 12 published studies. The model with the best fit to data indicated plasma Cu was positively affected by dietary Cu (P < 0.01) and negatively affected by both dietary Mo (P < 0.01) and S (P < 0.01). Another model also indicated that plasma Cu concentration is positively related to Cu:Mo ratio in the diet (P < 0.01). Dietary Cu had a positive effect on liver Cu (P < 0.01), whereas Mo showed a negative effect (P < 0.05), and no effect of dietary S on liver Cu was observed (P > 0.05). Average daily gain was negatively affected by dietary Mo (P < 0.05) and S (P < 0.01) and positively affected by Cu:Mo ratio (P < 0.01), likely because an increased Cu:Mo ratio minimizes the antagonistic effect of Mo on Cu. The feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by Mo (P < 0.05) and S (P < 0.01), whereas effects of the Cu:Mo ratio and dietary Cu were not significant (P > 0.05). The interaction between S and Mo affected (P < 0.01) G:F, which was likely related to a positive response with the proper balance between these minerals. In conclusion, dietary Cu, Mo, and S and the Cu:Mo ratio caused changes in plasma Cu. Only dietary Mo and S led to a negative response in the performance of growing-finishing cattle, whereas the diet Cu:Mo ratio has a linear and quadratic effect on ADG. Nutritionists and producers need to consider with caution the supplementation of growing-finishing cattle diets with Mo and S because of their potentially adverse effects on animal performance. An appropriate Cu:Mo ratio is desirable to minimize the effects of an impaired supply of Mo on Cu metabolism and ADG.  
  Address Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2013/11/23  
  ISSN 1525-3163 (Electronic) 0021-8812 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science and Network Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1179 Serial 2675  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Poppy, G.D.; Rabiee, A.R.; Lean, I.J.; Sanchez, W.K.; Dorton, K.L.; Morley, P.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A meta-analysis of the effects of feeding yeast culture produced by anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production of lactating dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 95 Issue 10 Pages 6027-6041  
  Keywords Anaerobiosis/physiology; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Animals; Cattle/metabolism/physiology; Diet/veterinary; Female; Fermentation/physiology; Lactation/physiology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism; Cattle  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic methods to estimate the effect of a commercially available yeast culture product on milk production and other production measures in lactating dairy cows using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sixty-one research publications (published journal articles, published abstracts, and technical reports) were identified through a review of literature provided by the manufacturer and a search of published literature using 6 search engines. Thirty-six separate studies with 69 comparisons met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The fixed-effect meta-analysis showed substantial heterogeneity for milk yield, energy-corrected milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield. Sub-group analysis of the data showed much less heterogeneity in peer-reviewed studies versus non-peer-reviewed abstracts and technical reports, and tended to show higher, but not significantly different, treatment effects. A random-effects meta-analysis showed estimated raw mean differences between treated and untreated cattle reported in peer-reviewed publications of 1.18 kg/d [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55 to 1.81], 1.61 kg/d (95% CI: 0.92 to 2.29), and 1.65 kg/d (95% CI: 0.97 to 2.34) for milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Milk fat yield and milk protein yield for peer-reviewed studies showed an increase in the raw mean difference of 0.06 kg/d (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) and 0.03 kg/d (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.05), respectively. Estimated raw mean dry matter intake of the peer-reviewed studies during early lactation (<70 d in milk) and not-early lactation were 0.62 kg/d (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.02) and a decrease of 0.78 kg/d (95% CI: -1.36 to -0.21), respectively. These findings provide strong evidence that this commercially available yeast culture product provides significant improvement in several important milk production outcomes as evaluated in production settings typical for commercial dairies in North America. Utilizing meta-analytic methods to study the complete breadth of information relating to a specific treatment by studying multiple overcomes of all eligible studies can reduce the uncertainty often seen in small individual studies designed without sufficient power to detect differences in treatments.  
  Address Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA. gpoppy@diamondv.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/08/28  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Google Scholar, AGRICOLA, ScienceDirect, Scirus, and CAB (Abstracts?) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1097 Serial 2557  
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