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Author Muir, W.W.; Ueyama, Y.; Noel-Morgan, J.; Kilborne, A.; Page, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Systematic Review of the Quality of IV Fluid Therapy in Veterinary Medicine Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Frontiers in Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal Front Vet Sci  
  Volume 4 Issue Pages 127  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovine; Colloids; Horses; Equine; Cats; Feline; Dogs; Canine; Intravenous fluids  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of the veterinary literature investigating IV fluid therapy in dogs, cats, horses, and cattle. DESIGN: Systematic review. PROCEDURES: The preferred reporting of items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) was employed for systematic review of all relevant IV fluid therapy manuscripts published from January 1969 through December 2016 in the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International (CABI) database. Independent grading systems used to evaluate manuscripts included the updated CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2012 checklist, risk of bias for animal intervention studies, criteria for levels of evidence, and methodological quality (Jadad scale). The quality of articles published before and after 2010 was compared. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-nine articles (63 dogs, 7 cats, 39 horses, 30 cattle) from 7,258 met the inclusion criteria. More than 50% of the manuscripts did not comply with minimal requirements for reporting randomized controlled trials. The most non-compliant items included identification of specific predefined objectives or a hypothesis, identification of trial design, how sample size was determined, randomization, and blinding procedures. Most studies were underpowered and at risk for selection, performance, and detection bias. The overall quality of the articles improved for articles published after 2010. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Most of the veterinary literature investigating the administration of IV fluid therapy in dogs, cats, horses, and cattle is descriptive, does not comply with standards for evidence, or provide adequate translation to clinical practice. Authors should employ and journal editors should enforce international consensus recommendations and guidelines for publication of data from animal experiments investigating IV fluid therapy.  
  Address QTest Labs, Columbus, OH, United States. College of Veterinary Medicine, Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, TN, United States. Center for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, United States.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/09/01  
  ISSN 2297-1769 (Print) 2297-1769 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CABI searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1465 Serial (down) 2920  
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Author Dorea, J.R.R.; Danes, M.A.C.; Zanton, G.I.; Armentano, L.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urinary purine derivatives as a tool to estimate dry matter intake in cattle: A meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 8977-8994  
  Keywords Cattle; Beef; Dairy; DMI; Nutirition  
  Abstract The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between dry matter intake (DMI) and urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion, to develop equations to predict DMI and to determine the endogenous excretion of PD for beef and dairy cattle using a meta-analytical approach. To develop the models, 62 published studies for both dairy (45 studies) and beef cattle (17 studies) were compiled. Twenty models were tested using DMI (kg/d) and digestible DMI (dDMI, kg/d) as response variables and PD:creatinine (linear term: PD:C, and quadratic term: PD:C2), allantoin:creatinine (linear term: ALLA:C, and quadratic term: ALLA:C2), metabolic body weight (BW0.75, kg), milk yield (MY, kg/d), and their combination as explanatory variables for dairy and beef (except for MY) cattle. The models developed to predict DMI for dairy cattle were validated using an independent data set from 2 research trials carried out at the University of Wisconsin (trial 1: n = 45; trial 2: n = 50). A second set of models was developed to estimate the endogenous PD excretion. In all evaluated models, the effect of PD (either as PD:C or ALLA:C) was significant, supporting our hypothesis that PD are in fact correlated with DMI. Despite the BW-independent relationship between PD and DMI, the inclusion of BW0.75 in the models with PD:C and ALLA:C as predictors slightly decreased the values of root mean square error (RMSE) and Akaike information criterion for the models of DMI. Our models suggest that both DMI and dDMI can be equally well predicted by PD-related variables; however, predicting DMI seems more useful from a practical and experimental standpoint. The inclusion of MY into the dairy models substantially decreased RMSE and Akaike information criterion values, and further increased the precision of the equations. The model including PD:C, BW0.75, and MY presented greater concordance correlation coefficient (0.93 and 0.63 for trials 1 and 2, respectively) and lower RMSE of prediction (1.90 and 3.35 kg/d for trials 1 and 2, respectively) when tested in the validation data set, emerging as a potentially useful estimator of nutrient intake in dairy cows. Endogenous PD excretion was estimated by the intercept of the linear regression between DMI (g/kg of BW0.75) and PD excretion (mmol/kg of BW0.75) for beef (0.404 mmol/kg of BW0.75) and dairy cattle (0.651 mmol/kg of BW0.75). Based on the very close agreement between our results for beef cattle and the literature, the linear regression appears to be an adequate method to estimate endogenous PD excretion.  
  Address Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706. Department of Animal Science, University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000, Brazil. US Dairy Forage Research Center, 1925 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI 53706. Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706. Electronic address: learment@wisc.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/09/04  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, Scielo, and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1464 Serial (down) 2919  
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Author Bui, C.; Rahman, B.; Heywood, A.E.; MacIntyre, C.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 Infection in Birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Abbreviated Journal Transbound Emerg Dis  
  Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 967-977  
  Keywords Birds; Avian; Influenza A Virus; Prevalence  
  Abstract Despite a much higher rate of human influenza A (H7N9) infection compared to influenza A (H5N1), and the assumption that birds are the source of human infection, detection rates of H7N9 in birds are lower than those of H5N1. This raises a question about the role of birds in the spread and transmission of H7N9 to humans. We conducted a meta-analysis of overall prevalence of H5N1 and H7N9 in different bird populations (domestic poultry, wild birds) and different environments (live bird markets, commercial poultry farms, wild habitats). The electronic database, Scopus, was searched for published papers, and Google was searched for country surveillance reports. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce pooled estimates of the prevalence of H5N1 and H7N9 for various subcategories. A random effects logistic regression model was used to compare prevalence rates between H5N1 and H7N9. Both viruses have low prevalence across all bird populations. Significant differences in prevalence rates were observed in domestic birds, farm settings, for pathogen and antibody testing, and during routine surveillance. Random effects logistic regression analyses show that among domestic birds, the prevalence of H5N1 is 47.48 (95% CI: 17.15-133.13, P < 0.001) times higher than H7N9. In routine surveillance (where surveillance was not conducted in response to human infections or bird outbreaks), the prevalence of H5N1 is still higher than H7N9 with an OR of 43.02 (95% CI: 16.60-111.53, P < 0.001). H7N9 in humans has occurred at a rate approximately four times higher than H5N1, and for both infections, birds are postulated to be the source. Much lower rates of H7N9 in birds compared to H5N1 raise doubts about birds as the sole source of high rates of human H7N9 infection. Other sources of transmission of H7N9 need to be considered and explored.  
  Address School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/01/12  
  ISSN 1865-1682 (Electronic) 1865-1674 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Medline and Embase searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1462 Serial (down) 2918  
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Author Zhou, G.; Zhou, X.; He, Y.; Shao, J.; Hu, Z.; Liu, R.; Zhou, H.; Hosseinibai, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Grazing intensity significantly affects belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 3 Pages 1167-1179  
  Keywords Grazing; Carbon; Livestock; Cattle, Cows; Sheep, Bovine; Ovine  
  Abstract Livestock grazing activities potentially alter ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland ecosystems. Despite the fact that numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses had been conducted, how grazing, especially its intensity, affects belowground C and N cycling in grasslands remains unclear. In this study, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 115 published studies to examine the responses of 19 variables associated with belowground C and N cycling to livestock grazing in global grasslands. Our results showed that, on average, grazing significantly decreased belowground C and N pools in grassland ecosystems, with the largest decreases in microbial biomass C and N (21.62% and 24.40%, respectively). In contrast, belowground fluxes, including soil respiration, soil net N mineralization and soil N nitrification increased by 4.25%, 34.67% and 25.87%, respectively, in grazed grasslands compared to ungrazed ones. More importantly, grazing intensity significantly affected the magnitude (even direction) of changes in the majority of the assessed belowground C and N pools and fluxes, and C : N ratio as well as soil moisture. Specifically,light grazing contributed to soil C and N sequestration whereas moderate and heavy grazing significantly increased C and N losses. In addition, soil depth, livestock type and climatic conditions influenced the responses of selected variables to livestock grazing to some degree. Our findings highlight the importance of the effects of grazing intensity on belowground C and N cycling, which may need to be incorporated into regional and global models for predicting effects of human disturbance on global grasslands and assessing the climate-biosphere feedbacks.  
  Address School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, China. Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013, China. Center for Global Change and Ecological Forecasting, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, China. Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200433, China. Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, DC, Qld, 4558, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/07/15  
  ISSN 1365-2486 (Electronic) 1354-1013 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1461 Serial (down) 2917  
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Author Asmare, K.; Abayneh, T.; Sibhat, B.; Shiferaw, D.; Szonyi, B.; Krontveit, R.I.; Skjerve, E.; Wieland, B. doi  openurl
  Title Major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume 170 Issue Pages 95-104  
  Keywords Epidemiology; Babesiosis; Ethiopia; Insect Vectors; Ruminants; Theileriasis; Ticks; Trypanosomiasis; Goats; Sheep; Vector  
  Abstract Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. The search was both manual and electronic. The databases used in electronic search were PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL. For most of the vector-borne diseases, the summary was limited to narrative synthesis due to lack of sufficient data. Meta-analysis was computed for trypanosomosis and dermatophilosis while meta-regression and sensitivity analysis was done only for trypanososmosis due to lack of sufficient reports on dermatophilosis. Owing emphasis to their vector role, ticks and flies were summarized narratively at genera/species level. In line with inclusion criteria, out of 106 initially identified research reports 43 peer-reviewed articles passed the quality assessment. Data on 7 vector-borne diseases were extracted at species and region level from each source. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of trypanosomosis was 3.7% with 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8, 4.9), while that of dermatophilosis was 3.1% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.0). The in-between study variance noted for trypanosomosis was statistically significant (p<0.05). Among the three covariates considered for meta-regression, only one (species) fitted the final model significantly (p<0.05) and explained 65.44% of the between studies variance (R2). The prevalence in sheep (5.5%) increased nearly by 34% compared to goats (2.9%). The parasitic presence in blood was documented for babesiosis (3.7% in goats); and anaplasmosis (3.9% in sheep). Serological evidence was retrieved for bluetongue ranging from 34.1% to 46.67% in sheep, and coxiellosis was 10.4% in goats. There was also molecular evidence on the presence of theileriosis in sheep (93%, n=160) and goats (1.9%, n=265). Regarding vectors of veterinary importance, 14 species of ticks in five genera, four species of Glossina and 4 genera of biting flies were reported. Despite the evidence on presence of various vectors including ticks, flies, mosquitoes and midges, studies on vector-borne diseases in Ethiopia are surprisingly rare, especially considering risks related to climate change, which is likely to affect distribution of vectors. Thus better evidence on the current situation is urgently needed in order to prevent spread and to model future distribution scenarios.  
  Address School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Electronic address: kassahun7588@gmail.com. College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia. College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Norwegian Medicines Agency, P. O. Box 6167 Etterstad, N-0602, Oslo, Norway. University of Life Sciences, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Oslo, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/02/19  
  ISSN 1873-6254 (Electronic) 0001-706X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1460 Serial (down) 2916  
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Author Mulero-Pazmany, M.; Jenni-Eiermann, S.; Strebel, N.; Sattler, T.; Negro, J.J.; Tablado, Z. doi  openurl
  Title Unmanned aircraft systems as a new source of disturbance for wildlife: A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages e0178448  
  Keywords Aircraft; Drones; Wildlife; Behaviour  
  Abstract The use of small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS; also known as “drones”) for professional and personal-leisure use is increasing enormously. UAS operate at low altitudes (<500 m) and in any terrain, thus they are susceptible to interact with local fauna, generating a new type of anthropogenic disturbance that has not been systematically evaluated. To address this gap, we performed a review of the existent literature about animals' responses to UAS flights and conducted a pooled analysis of the data to determine the probability and intensity of the disturbance, and to identify the factors influencing animals' reactions towards the small aircraft. We found that wildlife reactions depended on both the UAS attributes (flight pattern, engine type and size of aircraft) and the characteristics of animals themselves (type of animal, life-history stage and level of aggregation). Target-oriented flight patterns, larger UAS sizes, and fuel-powered (noisier) engines evoked the strongest reactions in wildlife. Animals during the non-breeding period and in large groups were more likely to show behavioral reactions to UAS, and birds are more prone to react than other taxa. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of wildlife disturbance and suggest guidelines for conservationists, users and manufacturers to minimize the impact of UAS. In addition, we propose that the legal framework needs to be adapted so that appropriate actions can be undertaken when wildlife is negatively affected by these emergent practices.  
  Address Swiss Ornithological Institute, Sempach, Switzerland. Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Seville, Spain. Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano Alto, Loja, Ecuador.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/06/22  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1459 Serial (down) 2915  
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Author Garcia-Morante, B.; Segales, J.; Serrano, E.; Sibila, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Determinants for swine mycoplasmal pneumonia reproduction under experimental conditions: A systematic review and recursive partitioning analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages e0181194  
  Keywords Swine; Pigs; Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; Pneumonia  
  Abstract One of the main Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) swine experimental model objectives is to reproduce mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP). Unfortunately, experimental validated protocols to maximize the chance to successfully achieve lung lesions induced by M. hyopneumoniae are not available at the moment. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify those factors that might have a major influence on the effective development of MP, measured as macroscopic lung lesions, under experimental conditions. Data from 85 studies describing M. hyopneumoniae inoculation experiments were compiled by means of a systematic review and analyzed thereafter. Several variables were considered in the analyses such as the number of pigs in the experiment, serological status against M. hyopneumoniae, source of the animals, age at inoculation, type of inoculum, strain of M. hyopneumoniae, route, dose and times of inoculation, study duration and co-infection with other swine pathogens. Descriptive statistics were used to depict M. hyopneumoniae experimental model main characteristics whereas a recursive partitioning approach, using regression trees, assessed the importance of the abovementioned experimental variables as MP triggering factors. A strong link between the time period between challenge and necropsies and lung lesion severity was observed. Results indicated that the most important factors to explain the observed lung lesion score variability were: (1) study duration, (2) M. hyopneumoniae strain, (3) age at inoculation, (4) co-infection with other swine pathogens and (5) animal source. All other studied variables were not relevant to explain the variability on M. hyopneumoniae lung lesions. The results provided in the present work may serve as a basis for debate in the search for a universally accepted M. hyopneumoniae challenge model.  
  Address IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Departament de Sanitat i Anatomia Animals, Facultat de Veterinaria, Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Departamento de Biologia and Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/07/26  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Medline searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1458 Serial (down) 2914  
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Author Vieira, A.S.; Pinto, P.S.; Lilenbaum, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review of leptospirosis on wild animals in Latin America Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Tropical Animal Health Production Abbreviated Journal Trop Anim Health Prod  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Leptospira; Wildlife  
  Abstract Leptospirosis is a bacterial systemic infection which affects domestic animals and wildlife, as well as humans. Many wild animals act as reservoirs of leptospires. Nevertheless, the real role of wildlife animals as source of infection to livestock and humans, as well as the most important reservoirs and leptospiral strains remains unclear. This systematic review assesses the available data about wildlife and their biomes in Latin America, concerning to leptospiral infection. In addition, we discuss the development of the research on leptospirosis in wildlife in this region. After the application of exclusion criteria, 79 papers were analyzed, comprising 186 species, 122 genus, 53 families, and 19 orders from four classes. Mammals were the most studied class, followed by Amphibian, Reptile, and Aves. The Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup was predominant in most biomes and many orders. A small number of antigens detected the majority of seroreactive animals of each class, and a smaller panel may be used at microscopic agglutination test. Further studies must always consider edaphoclimatic conditions besides only host class or species, in order to obtain a broader understanding of the wild epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis in the region. In conclusion, direct and indirect evidences demonstrate that leptospirosis is largely widespread among wildlife in all biomes of Latin America. Moreover, more research on the role of wildlife on the epidemiology of leptospirosis and its impact on livestock and public health are required, particularly focusing on direct detection of the agent.  
  Address Laboratory of Veterinary Bacteriology, Biomedical Institute, Fluminense Federal University, 101 Prof. Hernani Mello Street, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Laboratory of Veterinary Bacteriology, Biomedical Institute, Fluminense Federal University, 101 Prof. Hernani Mello Street, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. wlilenbauw@id.uff.br.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/10/03  
  ISSN 1573-7438 (Electronic) 0049-4747 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, and Cochrane--BVS, Virtual Health Library in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science--BVS-VET searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1457 Serial (down) 2913  
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Author Rostal, M.K.; Liang, J.E.; Zimmermann, D.; Bengis, R.; Paweska, J.; Karesh, W.B. doi  openurl
  Title Rift Valley Fever: Does Wildlife Play a Role? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Journal Abbreviated Journal Ilar J  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages 1-12  
  Keywords Rift Valley fever virus; Ruminants; Wildlife  
  Abstract Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an emerging vector-borne pathogen that causes sporadic epizootics and epidemics with multi-year, apparently quiescent, inter-epidemic periods. The epidemiology and ecology of the virus during these inter-epidemic periods is poorly understood. There is evidence for low-level circulation of the virus in livestock and wild ruminants; however, as of yet there is no evidence to identify a specific mammalian reservoir host. Using a systematic approach, this review synthesizes results from serosurveys, attempts at viral detection, and experimental infection of wildlife. These data demonstrate there is a gap in research conducted on RVF in wild ruminants. Specifically, there is very little published data on the pathogenicity of an RVFV infection in various wildlife species, validation of diagnostic assays for exposure to RVFV and understanding of epizootic or endemic disease dynamics in wild ruminants. We recommend that future research on RVFV incorporate a more systematic approach to understand the low-level cycling of the virus during inter-epidemic periods in both wild and domestic ruminant species.  
  Address EcoHealth Alliance in New York City, New York. EcoHealth Alliance in New York City, New York. South African National Parks in Kimberley, South Africa. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Working Group on Wildlife and in Port Alfred, South Africa. Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service in Sandringham, South Africa. Health and Policy at EcoHealth Alliance in New York City, New York.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/10/07  
  ISSN 1930-6180 (Electronic) 1084-2020 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and PubMed searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1456 Serial (down) 2912  
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Author de Vasconcelos, T.C.B.; Furtado, M.C.; Belo, V.S.; Morgado, F.N.; Figueiredo, F.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Canine susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis: A systematic review upon genetic aspects, considering breed factors and immunological concepts Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Infection Genetics and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Infect Genet Evol  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Dog; Visceral leishmaniasis; Genetics  
  Abstract Dogs have different susceptibility degrees to leishmaniasis; however, genetic research on this theme is scarce, manly on visceral form. The aims of this systematic review were to describe and discuss the existing scientific findings on genetic susceptibility to canine leishmaniasis, as well as to show the gaps of the existing knowledge. Twelve articles were selected, including breed immunological studies, genome wide associations or other gene polymorphism or gene sequencing studies, and transcription approaches. As main results of literature, there was a suggestion of genetic clinical resistance background for Ibizan Hound dogs, and alleles associated with protection or susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in Boxer dogs. Genetic markers can explain phenotypic variance in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and in cellular immune responses, including antigen presentation. Many gene segments are involved in canine visceral leishmaniasis phenotype, with Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 (NRAMP1) as the most studied. This was related to both protection and susceptibility. In comparison with murine and human genetic approaches, lack of knowledge in dogs is notorious, with many possibilities for new studies, revealing a wide field to be assessed on canine leishmaniasis susceptibility research.  
  Address Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, Vigilancia em Saude, Secretaria Municipal de Saude, Prefeitura Municipal de Resende, Rua Euridices Paulina de Almeida, 300, Vicentina II, Resende, RJ 27500-000, Brazil. Electronic address: tassia.vasconcelos@gmail.com. Fiocruz Mata Atlantica, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Estrada Rodrigues Caldas, 3400, Taquara, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22713-375, Brazil. Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei, campus Centro Oeste Dona Lindu, Rua Sebastiao Goncalves Coelho, 400, Chanadour, Divinopolis, MG 35.501-296, Brazil. Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Leishmaniose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-360, Brazil. Laboratorio de Biologia Celular, Instituto Carlos Chagas, Rua Professor Algacyr Munhoz Mader, 3.775, CIC, campus do Tecpar, bloco C, Curitiba, PR 81.350-010 Brazil.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/10/11  
  ISSN 1567-7257 (Electronic) 1567-1348 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1455 Serial (down) 2911  
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Author Dettenmaier, S.J.; Messmer, T.A.; Hovick, T.J.; Dahlgren, D.K. doi  openurl
  Title Effects of livestock grazing on rangeland biodiversity: A meta-analysis of grouse populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 7 Issue 19 Pages 7620-7627  
  Keywords Grouse; Livestock grazing; Biodiversity  
  Abstract Livestock grazing affects over 60% of the world's agricultural lands and can influence rangeland ecosystem services and the quantity and quality of wildlife habitat, resulting in changes in biodiversity. Concomitantly, livestock grazing has the potential to be detrimental to some wildlife species while benefiting other rangeland organisms. Many imperiled grouse species require rangeland landscapes that exhibit diverse vegetation structure and composition to complete their life cycle. However, because of declining populations and reduced distributions, grouse are increasingly becoming a worldwide conservation concern. Grouse, as a suite of upland gamebirds, are often considered an umbrella species for other wildlife and thus used as indicators of rangeland health. With a projected increase in demand for livestock products, better information will be required to mitigate the anthropogenic effects of livestock grazing on rangeland biodiversity. To address this need, we completed a data-driven and systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to determine the current knowledge of the effects of livestock grazing on grouse populations (i.e., chick production and population indices) worldwide. Our meta-analysis revealed an overall negative effect of livestock grazing on grouse populations. Perhaps more importantly, we identified an information void regarding the effects of livestock grazing on the majority of grouse species. Additionally, the reported indirect effects of livestock grazing on grouse species were inconclusive and more reflective of differences in the experimental design of the available studies. Future studies designed to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of livestock grazing on wildlife should document (i) livestock type, (ii) timing and frequency of grazing, (iii) duration, and (iv) stocking rate. Much of this information was lacking in the available published studies we reviewed, but is essential when making comparisons between different livestock grazing management practices and their potential impacts on rangeland biodiversity.  
  Address Department of Wildland ResourcesJack H. Berryman InstituteUtah State UniversityLoganUTUSA. Ecology CenterUtah State UniversityLoganUTUSA. Range Science ProgramSchool of Natural Resource SciencesNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoNDUSA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/10/19  
  ISSN 2045-7758 (Print) 2045-7758 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ISI Web of Science and Scopus searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1454 Serial (down) 2910  
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Author Retes, P.L.; Clemente, A.H.S.; Neves, D.G.; Esposito, M.; Makiyama, L.; Alvarenga, R.R.; Pereira, L.J.; Zangeronimo, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title In ovo feeding of carbohydrates for broilers-a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Abbreviated Journal Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords chickens; eggs; in ovo nutrition; poultry  
  Abstract The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence that the injection of carbohydrate-based solutions into embryonated eggs improves broiler performance. A literature search was conducted in April 2017 using the keywords broiler, carbohydrate, in ovo, nutrition and poultry. Only papers that involved in ovo carbohydrate injections in poultry were used in this study. After specific selection criteria, 17 papers were selected. The quality scoring system of the selected studies was based on the injection methodology, use of control groups, type of solution injected, period of injection, egg and hens characteristics, number of variables analysed and the statistical design. Among papers, there was no standardised procedure in to inoculate the solutions. Nevertheless, in general, in ovo feeding of carbohydrates decreases the hatch rate, improves the hatch weight, but it does not seem to influence the post-hatch performance of broilers. The inoculation of 75 mg of glucose in the albumen seems to bring better results. Further studies are needed to improve the technical methodology of in ovo injections for commercial use.  
  Address Veterinary Medicine Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Animal Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Health Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/10/27  
  ISSN 1439-0396 (Electronic) 0931-2439 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes ISI Web of Science, Scopus,Pubmed and Scielo Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1453 Serial (down) 2909  
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Author Jaramillo, D.; Peeler, E.J.; Laurin, E.; Gardner, I.A.; Whittington, R.J. doi  openurl
  Title Serology in Finfish for Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Research: A Systematic Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Abbreviated Journal J Aquat Anim Health  
  Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 1-14  
  Keywords Fish; Aquatic animals; Serological  
  Abstract Historically, serological tests for finfish diseases have been underused when compared with their use in terrestrial animal health. For years the nonspecific immune response in fish was judged to make serology unreliable and inferior to the direct measurement of agent analytes. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications that reported on the development, validation, or application of serological tests for finfish diseases. A total of 168 articles met the screening criteria; most of them were focused on salmonid pathogens (e.g., Aeromonas spp. and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus). Before the 1980s, most publications reported the use of agglutination tests, but our review indicates that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has more recently become the dominant serological test. The main application of serological tests has been in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, with few applications for surveillance or demonstration of freedom from disease, despite the advantages of serological tests over direct detection at the population level. Nonlethal sampling, low cost, and postinfection persistence of antibodies make serological assays the test of choice in surveillance, especially of valuable broodstock. However, their adoption has been constrained by poor characterization and validation. The number of publications in our review reporting diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serological tests in finfish was small (n = 7). Foreseeing a wider use of serological tests in the future for diagnostic end purposes, we offer recommendations for mitigating deficiencies in the development and evaluation of serological tests, including optimization, control of nonspecific reactions, informed cutoff points, diagnostic accuracy, and serological baseline studies. Achieving these goals will facilitate greater international recognition of serological testing in programs supporting aquatic animal health. Received March 21, 2016; accepted September 24, 2016.  
  Address a Atlantic Veterinary College , University of Prince Edward Island , 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown , Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3 , Canada. b Faculty of Veterinary Science , The University of Sydney , 425 Werombi Road, Camden , New South Wales 2570 , Australia. c Centre for Environment , Fisheries and Aquaculture Science , Barrack Road, Weymouth DT4 8UB , UK.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/02/07  
  ISSN 1548-8667 (Electronic) 0899-7659 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Databases not stated in abstract, full citation not yet available. Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1452 Serial (down) 2908  
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Author Clark, B.; Frewer, L.J.; Panzone, L.A.; Stewart, G.B. doi  openurl
  Title The Need for Formal Evidence Synthesis in Food Policy: A Case Study of Willingness-to-Pay Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animals (Basel) Abbreviated Journal Animals (Basel)  
  Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords Cows; cattle; Bovine; Sheep; Ovine; Farm animal welfare; Willingness to pay  
  Abstract Meta-analysis is increasingly utilised in the understanding of consumer behaviour, including in relation to farm animal welfare. However, the issue of publication bias has received little attention. As willingness-to-pay (WTP) is widely used in policy, it is important to explore publication bias. This research aimed to evaluate publication bias in WTP, specifically public WTP for farm animal welfare. A systematic review of four databases yielded 54 studies for random effects meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed by the Egger test, rank test, contour-enhanced funnel plots, and the Vevea and Hedges weight-function model. Results consistently indicated the presence of publication bias, highlighting an overestimation of WTP for farm animal welfare. Stakeholders should be wary of WTP estimates that have not been critically evaluated for publication bias.  
  Address School of Agriculture Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. b.clark@newcastle.ac.uk. School of Agriculture Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk. School of Agriculture Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. luca.panzone@newcastle.ac.uk. School of Agriculture Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. gavin.stewart@newcastle.ac.uk.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/03/14  
  ISSN 2076-2615 (Print) 2076-2615 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, AgEcon Search, and Google Scholar,. Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1451 Serial (down) 2907  
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Author Francoz, D.; Wellemans, V.; Roy, J.P.; Lacasse, P.; Ordonez-Iturriaga, A.; Labelle, F.; Dufour, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Non-antibiotic approaches at drying-off for treating and preventing intramammary infections: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Health Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Anim Health Res Rev  
  Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 169-175  
  Keywords Cattle; Cows; Bovine; Dairy cows; Mastitis; Drying off; Antimicrobials  
  Abstract Intramammary infection (IMI) treatment and prevention at drying-off is one of the leading causes for using antimicrobials on dairy farms. The objective of the current paper is to describe the protocol used for conducting a systematic review of the literature on non-antibiotic strategies that can be used on dairy cows at dry off to treat and prevent IMI. Relevant literature will be identified using a combination of database search strategies and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, articles will have to: (1) be published after 1969; (2) be written in English, French, or Spanish; (3) use a study design such as a controlled trial, an observational study, or an experimental study conducted in vivo; (4) be conducted on commercial dairy cows; (5) investigate a non-antibiotic intervention used at dry off; and finally, (6) report on a relevant mastitis outcome. Titles and abstracts, then full articles will be reviewed for inclusion. Specific data will be extracted and risk of bias will be assessed for all included articles. The planned systematic review will be the first to colligate, in a coherent whole, studies investigating non-antibiotic strategies for treating and preventing IMI at drying-off.  
  Address Departement de sciences cliniques,Faculte de medecine veterinaire,Universite de Montreal,C.P. 5000,St-Hyacinthe,QC, J2S 7C6,Canada. Canadian Bovine Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Network,C.P. 5000,St-Hyacinthe,QC, J2S 7C6,Canada. Departement de pathologie et microbiologie, Faculte de medecine veterinaire,Universite de Montreal,C.P. 5000,St-Hyacinthe,QC, J2S 7C6,Canada.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/02/06  
  ISSN 1475-2654 (Electronic) 1466-2523 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts and Medline searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1450 Serial (down) 2906  
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Author Voss-Rech, D.; Potter, L.; Vaz, C.S.; Pereira, D.I.; Sangioni, L.A.; Vargas, A.C.; de Avila Botton, S. doi  openurl
  Title Antimicrobial Resistance in Nontyphoidal Salmonella Isolated from Human and Poultry-Related Samples in Brazil: 20-Year Meta-Analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Foodborne Pathogical Diseases Abbreviated Journal Foodborne Pathog Dis  
  Volume 14 Issue 2 Pages 116-124  
  Keywords Salmonella; Antimicrobial resistance; Humans; Poultry; Chickens; Zoonoses  
  Abstract Nontyphoidal Salmonella are one of the leading causes of foodborne diseases in the world. As poultry products are recognized as main sources of human salmonellosis, nontyphoidal Salmonella control has become a global issue for the poultry industry. The increasing antimicrobial resistance in poultry-related nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars is a global matter of concern. By monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance, alternative treatments can be identified and possible restrictions in the treatment of systemic human salmonellosis foreseen. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the profile and temporal evolution of the antimicrobial resistance of nontyphoidal Salmonella of poultry and human origin in Brazil, isolated in the period from 1995 to 2014. Four databases were researched; twenty-nine articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. In the nontyphoidal isolates of poultry origin, the highest levels of antimicrobial resistance were verified for sulfonamides (44.3%), nalidixic acid (42.5%), and tetracycline (35.5%). In the human-origin isolates, the resistance occurred mainly for sulfonamides (46.4%), tetracycline (36.9%), and ampicillin (23.6%). Twenty-two articles described results of antimicrobial resistance specifically for Salmonella Enteritidis, also enabling the individual meta-analysis of this serovar. For most antimicrobials, the resistance levels of Salmonella Enteritidis were lower than those found when considering all the nontyphoidal serovars. In the poultry-origin isolates, a quadratic temporal distribution was observed, with reduced resistance to streptomycin in Salmonella Enteritidis and in all nontyphoidal serovars, and a linear increase of resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella Enteritidis. In the human-origin isolates, a linear increase was identified in the resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella Enteritidis and in all the nontyphoidal isolates, and to gentamicin in Salmonella Enteritidis. Continuous monitoring of the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance could support the measurement of the consequences on poultry and human health.  
  Address 1 Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Medicina Veterinaria (PPGMV), Departamento de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Centro de Ciencias Rurais (CCR), Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) , Santa Maria, Brazil . 2 Laboratorio de Sanidade e Genetica Animal , Embrapa Suinos e Aves, Concordia, Brazil . 3 Departamento de Zootecnia, CCR , UFSM, Santa Maria, Brazil . 4 Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia (IB), Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel) , Pelotas, Brazil .  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/12/07  
  ISSN 1556-7125 (Electronic) 1535-3141 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Databases searched not detailed in the abstract and full citation not available Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1449 Serial (down) 2905  
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Author Abell, K.M.; Theurer, M.E.; Larson, R.L.; White, B.J.; Apley, M. doi  openurl
  Title A mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of metaphylaxis treatments for bovine respiratory disease in beef cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 95 Issue 2 Pages 626-635  
  Keywords Cattle: Cows; Calves; Bovine; Respiratory diseases; Antimicrobials  
  Abstract The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of antimicrobials approved for parenteral metaphylactic use in feeder and stocker calves on morbidity and mortality for bovine respiratory disease with the use of a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. An initial literature review was conducted in April 2016 through Pubmed, Agricola, and CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau) for randomized controlled trials for metaphylaxis antimicrobial administered parentally to incoming feedlot or stocker calves within 48 h of arrival. The final list of publications included 29 studies, with a total of 37 trials. There were 8 different metaphylactic antimicrobials. Final event outcomes were categorized into bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity cumulative incidence d 1 to </= 60 of the feeding period, BRD morbidity cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout of the feeding period, BRD mortality cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout of the feeding period, and BRD retreatment cumulative incidence morbidity d 1 to closeout of the feeding period. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence for all the event outcomes to determine mean odds ratio (OR) with 95% credibility intervals (CrIs) for all metaphylactic antimicrobial comparisons. The “upper tier” treatment arms for morbidity d 1 to </= 60 included tulathromycin, gamithromycin, and tilmicosin. For BRD mortality cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout and BRD retreatment morbidity d 1 to closeout, classifying the treatment arms into tiers was not possible due to overlapping 95% CrIs. The results of this project accurately identified differences between metaphylactic antimicrobials, and metaphylactic antimicrobial options appear to offer different outcomes on BRD morbidity and mortality odds in feedlot cattle.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/04/06  
  ISSN 1525-3163 (Electronic) 0021-8812 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Pubmed, Agricola, and CAB searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1448 Serial (down) 2904  
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Author Abdi, R.D.; Agga, G.E.; Aregawi, W.G.; Bekana, M.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Delespaux, V.; Duchateau, L. doi  openurl
  Title A systematic review and meta-analysis of trypanosome prevalence in tsetse flies Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 100  
  Keywords Trypanosoma; Tsetse Flies  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The optimisation of trypanosomosis control programs warrants a good knowledge of the main vector of animal and human trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the tsetse fly. An important aspect of the tsetse fly population is its trypanosome infection prevalence, as it determines the intensity of the transmission of the parasite by the vector. We therefore conducted a systematic review of published studies documenting trypanosome infection prevalence from field surveys or from laboratory experiments under controlled conditions. Publications were screened in the Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Using the four-stage (identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion) process in the PRISMA statement the initial screened total of 605 studies were reduced to 72 studies. The microscopic examination of dissected flies (dissection method) remains the most used method to detect trypanosomes and thus constituted the main focus of this analysis. Meta-regression was performed to identify factors responsible for high trypanosome prevalence in the vectors and a random effects meta-analysis was used to report the sensitivity of molecular and serological tests using the dissection method as gold standard. RESULTS: The overall pooled prevalence was 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1%, 12.4%) and 31.0% (95% CI = 20.0%, 42.0%) for the field survey and laboratory experiment data respectively. The country and the year of publication were found to be significantly factors associated with the prevalence of trypanosome infection in tsetse flies. The alternative diagnostic tools applied to dissection positive samples were characterised by low sensitivity, and no information on the specificity was available at all. CONCLUSION: Both temporal and spatial variation in trypanosome infection prevalence of field collected tsetse flies exists, but further investigation on real risk factors is needed how this variation can be explained. Improving the sensitivity and determining the specificity of these alternative diagnostic tools should be a priority and will allow to estimate the prevalence of trypanosome infection in tsetse flies in high-throughput.  
  Address Department of Clinical studies, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu, Oromia, Ethiopia. retaduguma@gmail.com. Department of Animal Science, Institute of Agriculture, University of Tennessee, 2506 River Drive, Knoxville, USA. retaduguma@gmail.com. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Animal Environmental Systems Research Unit, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA. Werer Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Afar, Ethiopia. Department of Clinical studies, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu, Oromia, Ethiopia. Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Gent University, Ghent, Belgium. Faculty of Sciences and Bioengineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. Department of Comparative Physiology and Biometrics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Gent University, Ghent, Belgium.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/04/14  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, PubMed and Google Schola Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1446 Serial (down) 2903  
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Author Young, I.; Wilhelm, B.J.; Cahill, S.; Nakagawa, R.; Desmarchelier, P.; Rajic, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Slaughter and Processing Interventions to Control Non-Typhoidal Salmonella in Beef and Pork Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Food Protection Abbreviated Journal J Food Prot  
  Volume 79 Issue 12 Pages 2196-2210  
  Keywords Cattle; Cows; Bovine; Swine; Pigs; Abattoirs; Public health; Food Contamination; Salmonella  
  Abstract Pork is one of the major food sources of human salmonellosis worldwide, while beef products have been implicated in numerous foodborne outbreaks. As a result, effective interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination during beef and pork processing are of interest to both regulators and industry. We conducted a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis of literature investigating the efficacy of slaughter and processing interventions to control Salmonella in beef and pork. Review steps included: a comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; data extraction; risk-of-bias assessment; meta-analysis (where appropriate); and a weight-of-evidence assessment. A total of 191 relevant experimental studies were identified. Two controlled trials indicated that hot water and steam treatments are effective at reducing the prevalence of Salmonella on beef carcasses (relative risk [RR] = 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.58), while four trials found that pre-chill organic acid washes are effective at reducing Salmonella on pork carcasses (RR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.78), with high confidence in the estimates of effect. Four quasi-experimental studies found that post-exsanguination chemical washes were effective to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella on cattle hides, with low confidence in the specific estimate of effect; moderate confidence was found for the effect estimates of scalding (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.29) and singeing (RR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.52) of pork carcasses. The overall evidence supported enhanced reductions of Salmonella through a multiple-hurdle approach. In conclusion, various slaughter and processing interventions can contribute to reducing Salmonella on beef and pork carcasses, depending on the context of application; an appropriate combination should be selected, validated, and verified by establishment operators within their local conditions.  
  Address School of Occupational and Public Health, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, POD 249, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5B 2K3. Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1. Food Safety and Quality Unit, Office of Food Safety, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome 00153, Italy. Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Food Safety Principles, 558 Pullenvale Road, Pullenvale, Queensland 4069, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/01/21  
  ISSN 1944-9097 (Electronic) 0362-028X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Databases not stated in abstract and full citation not accessible Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1441 Serial (down) 2902  
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Author Tadesse, G. doi  openurl
  Title Brucellosis Seropositivity in Animals and Humans in Ethiopia: A Meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Abbreviated Journal PLoS Negl Trop Dis  
  Volume 10 Issue 10 Pages e0005006  
  Keywords Cows, Bovine; Caprine; Brucella; Brucellosis; Cattle; Ethiopia; Goats; Humans; Ovine; Sheep; Zoonoses  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneities of estimates and to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans in Ethiopia. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 70 studies covering 75879 animals and 2223 humans were extracted. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) in series were the most frequently used serological tests. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates. The overall True Prevalence of brucellosis seropositivity in goats and sheep were estimated at 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5, 7.5) and 2.7% (95%CI = 1.8, 3.4), respectively, and 2.9% for each of camels and cattle. The prevalence was higher in post-pubertal than in pre-pubertal animals (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6, 3.7) and in the pastoral than in the mixed crop-livestock production system (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 2.5, 3.2). The incidence rates of brucellosis in humans of pastoral and sedentary system origins were estimated at 160 and 28 per 100 000 person years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of brucellosis is higher in goats than in other species. Its occurrence is evocative of its importance in the country in general and in the pastoral system in particular. Public awareness creation could reduce the transmission of Brucella spp. from animals to humans and the potential of livestock vaccination as a means of control of brucellosis needs to be assessed.  
  Address Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/10/30  
  ISSN 1935-2735 (Electronic) 1935-2727 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Pub Med interface, Google Scholar, Google, African Journals online (AJOL) and lists of references of articles searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1442 Serial (down) 2901  
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