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Author Lambert, K.; Coe, J.; Niel, L.; Dewey, C.; Sargeant, J.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of dogs surrendered for dog-related and owner-related reasons Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Preventive Veterinary medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 118 Issue 1 Pages 148-60  
  Keywords Dogs; Shelters  
  Abstract Companion-animal relinquishment is a worldwide phenomenon that leaves companion animals homeless. Knowing why humans make the decision to end their relationship with a companion-animal can help in our understanding of this complex societal issue and can help to develop preventive strategies. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize reasons why dogs are surrendered, and determine if certain study characteristics were associated with the reported proportions of reasons for surrender. Articles investigating one or more reasons for dog surrender were selected from the references of a published scoping review. Two reviewers assessed the titles and abstracts of these articles, identifying 39 relevant articles. From these, 21 articles were further excluded because of ineligible study design, insufficient data available for calculating a proportion, or no data available for dogs. Data were extracted from 18 articles and meta-analysis was conducted on articles investigating reasons for dog surrender to a shelter (n=9) or dog surrender for euthanasia (n=5). Three studies were excluded from meta-analysis because they were duplicate populations. Other reasons for excluding studies from meta-analysis were, (1) the study only investigated reasons for dog re-relinquishment (n=2) and (2) the study sample size was <10 (n=1). Two articles investigated reasons for both dog surrender to a shelter and dog surrender for euthanasia. Results of meta-analysis found owner health/illness as a reason for dog surrender to a shelter had an overall estimate of 4.6% (95% CI: 4.1%, 5.2%). For all other identified reasons for surrender there was significant variation in methodology among studies preventing further meta-analysis. Univariable meta-regression was conducted to explore sources of variation among these studies. Country was identified as a significant source of variation (p<0.01) among studies reporting behavioural problems as a reason for dog surrender for euthanasia. The overall estimate for studies from Australia was 10% (95% CI: 8.0%, 12.0%; I2=15.5%), compared to 16% (95% CI: 15.0%, 18.0%; I2=20.2%) for studies from other countries. The present systematic review and meta-analysis highlights the need for further research and standardization of data collection to improve understanding of the reasons for dog relinquishment.  
  Address Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address: klambert@uoguelph.ca. Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada; Centre for Public Health and Zoonoses, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/12/04  
  ISSN 1873-1716 (Electronic) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1284 Serial 2771  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Beckett, S.D.; Lean, I.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in postpartum dairy cattle: a meta-analysis of effects on reproductive efficiency Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Animal Reproduction Science Abbreviated Journal Anim Reprod Sci  
  Volume 48 Issue 2-4 Pages 93-112  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle/physiology; Confidence Intervals; Estrus/drug effects; Female; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/administration & dosage/pharmacology; Postpartum Period/drug effects; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Rate; Time Factors; Cattle  
  Abstract The efficacy of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or synthetic analogues in improving the reproductive performance of dairy cows less than 40 days postpartum has not been established. It was postulated that disparity observed between the results of similar trials may have arisen from differences in study design, including the dosage of GnRH used; the number of days after calving at which GnRH was administered; the concurrent use of prostaglandins to induce oestrus; and the enrollment of cows with an abnormal puerperium. The results of 24 trials, extracted from 12 research papers were assessed using meta-analysis. When all trials were considered, treatment with GnRH did not significantly alter the number of days to first oestrus or first service or the relative risk of pregnancy at first service (P > 0.05). While treatment did significantly reduce the number of days open by 2.75 days and the number of services per conception by 0.05 services, the results of these studies were heterogenous (P < 0.001) and the validity of pooled estimates questionable. The results of the subgroup of studies that enrolled only cows with a normal puerperium were homogenous for all outcomes examined (P > 0.43), although none of the pooled estimates were significant. Sensitivity analyses, performed by excluding the consistently outlying results of one study, improved the homogeneity of all outcomes (P > 0.03) and produced a significant reduction of 4.52 days to first oestrus in treated cows. Pooled estimates derived without the results of the outlying study were considered more valid indicators of the direction and likely magnitude of effect than those derived in the heterogenous overall analyses. The results of this meta-analysis showed that while blanket treatment of dairy cows in the postpartum period may reduce the number of days to first oestrus, subsequent reproductive performance is unaltered. The study also demonstrated a need to concentrate further research on the potential for treatment with GnRH during the postpartum period to improve the reproductive performance of cows with an abnormal puerperium.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. s-beckett@massey.ac.nz  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 1997/08/01  
  ISSN 0378-4320 (Print) 0378-4320 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) “CAB Extracts” (CAB Abstracts?), AGRICOLA, Life Sciences and “Biological Extracts” (Biological Abstracts?) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 622 Serial 2355  
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Author Nimer, J.; Lundahl, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Animal-assisted therapy: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Anthrozoos Abbreviated Journal Anthrozoos  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 225-238  
  Keywords Pets and Companion Animals [LL070]; Non-communicable Human Diseases and Injuries [VV600]; Non-drug Therapy and Prophylaxis of Humans [VV710]; behavior problems; emotions; human diseases; mental disorders; pets; therapy; man; Homo; Hominidae; Primates; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; animal assisted therapy; anthrozoology; autistic disorder; mental illness; meta-analysis; misbehavior; misconduct; pet animals; psychiatric disorders; systematic reviews; therapeutics; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been practiced for many years and there is now increasing interest in demonstrating its efficacy through research. To date, no known quantitative review of AAT studies has been published; our study sought to fill this gap. We conducted a comprehensive search of articles reporting on AAT in which we reviewed 250 studies, 49 of which met our inclusion criteria and were submitted to meta-analytic procedures. Overall, AAT was associated with moderate effect sizes in improving outcomes in four areas: Autism-spectrum symptoms, medical difficulties, behavioral problems, and emotional well-being. Contrary to expectations, characteristics of participants and studies did not produce differential outcomes. AAT shows promise as an additive to established interventions and future research should investigate the conditions under which AAT can be most helpful.  
  Address College of Social Work, University of Utah, 395 South 1500 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. brad.lundahl@socwk.utah.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0892-7936 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) 11 databases searched – PsychInfo, Ebsco Animals and MEDLINE named. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 361 Serial 2526  
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Author Tripp, H.M.; Step, D.L.; Krehbiel, C.R.; Moberly, H.K.; Malayer, J.R. url  openurl
  Title Evaluation of outcomes in beef cattle comparing preventive health protocols utilizing viral respiratory vaccines Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Bovine Practitioner Abbreviated Journal Bovine Pr  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 54-64  
  Keywords Host Resistance and Immunity [HH600]; Meat Producing Animals [LL120]; Animal Immunology [LL650]; Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Animals [LL821]; beef cattle; cattle diseases; feed conversion efficiency; immune response; liveweight gain; mortality; respiratory diseases; vaccination; viral diseases; Bovine coronavirus; Bovine herpesvirus 1; Bovine parainfluenza virus 3; Bovine respiratory syncytial virus; Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1; Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2; cattle; Betacoronavirus 1; Betacoronavirus; Coronavirinae; Coronaviridae; Nidovirales; positive-sense ssRNA Viruses; ssRNA Viruses; RNA Viruses; viruses; Varicellovirus; Alphaherpesvirinae; Herpesviridae; Herpesvirales; dsDNA Viruses; DNA Viruses; Pneumovirus; Pneumovirinae; Paramyxoviridae; Mononegavirales; negative-sense ssRNA Viruses; Pestivirus; Flaviviridae; Bos; Bovidae; ruminants; Artiodactyla; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; Respirovirus; Paramyxovirinae; bovine respiratory disease; death rate; immunity reactions; immunological reactions; liveweight gains; lung diseases; viral infections [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract Vaccination to reduce the occurrence of bovine respiratory disease is a commonly performed preventive health measure employed by veterinarians and beef cattle producers. Despite its widespread acceptance, evidence relating health and performance outcomes of receiving and feedlot cattle to vaccination for viral components of the bovine respiratory disease complex remains to be completely established. PubMed, CAB Abstracts, and The Bovine Practitioner were searched for peer-reviewed journal articles reporting field trials of viral respiratory vaccines utilizing naturally occurring disease models published in English between 1982 and 2012. Antigens of interest for this systematic review included bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenzavirus type 3, bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine coronavirus. Search results were also reviewed for manuscripts reporting the effects of timing on viral respiratory vaccine efficacy in receiving and feedlot cattle. Studies were included in this review only if they reported clinically relevant outcomes, which were defined as morbidity, mortality, rates of chronic illness, lung lesions identified at necropsy or harvest, and performance parameters including average daily gain and feed-to-gain ratios.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0524-1685 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) 46th Annual Conference of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, 19-21 September 2013. CAB Abstracts and PubMed searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010. Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1249 Serial 2737  
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Author Zoidis, E.; Demiris, N.; Kominakis, A.; Pappas, A.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meta-analysis of selenium accumulation and expression of antioxidant enzymes in chicken tissues Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience Abbreviated Journal Animal  
  Volume 8 Issue 4 Pages 542-54  
  Keywords Chickens; Poultry; Nutrition  
  Abstract A meta-analysis integrating results of 40 selenium (Se) supplementation experiments that originated from 35 different controlled randomized trials was carried out in an attempt to identify significant factors that affect tissue Se accumulation in chicken. Examined factors included: Se source (12 different sources examined), type of chicken (laying hens or broilers), age of birds at the beginning of supplementation, duration of supplementation, year during which the study was conducted, sex of birds, number of chickens per treatment, method of analysis, tissue type, concentration of Se determined and Se added to feed. A correlation analysis was also carried out between tissue Se concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Data analysis showed that the factors significantly affecting tissue Se concentration include type of chicken (P=0.006), type of tissue (P<0.001) and the analytical method used (P=0.014). Although Se source was not found to affect tissue Se concentration (overall P>0.05), certain inorganic (sodium selenite), calcium selenite, sodium selenate and organic sources (B-Traxim Se), Se-yeast, Se-malt, Se-enriched cabbage and Se-enriched garlic as well as background Se level from feed ingredients were found to significantly affect tissue Se concentration. The Se accumulation rate (estimated as linear regression coefficient of Se concentrations to Se added to feed) discriminated between the various tissues with highest values estimated in the leg muscle and lowest in blood plasma. Correlation analysis has also shown that tissue Se concentration (pooled data) was correlated to Se added to feed (r=0.529, P<0.01, log values) and to glutathione peroxidase activity (r=0.332, P=0.0478), with the latter not being correlated with Se added to feed. Although significant factors affecting Se concentration were reported in the present study, they do not necessarily indicate the in vivo function of the antioxidant system or the level of accumulated Se as other factors, not examined in the present study, may interact at the level of trace element absorption, distribution and retention.  
  Address Department of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece. 2 Department of Statistics, Athens University of Economics and Business, 76 Patission Str., 10434 Athens, Greece. 3 Department of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/01/07  
  ISSN 1751-732X (Electronic) 1751-7311 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Academic Onefile, AGRICOLA, BIDS, Biochemistry and Biophysics Citation Index, BioInfoBank Library, Biological Abstracts, Biosis Previews, CAB Abstracts, Elsevier biobase-CABS, EMBASE, Current Contents/Life Sciences, EMBiology, Google Scholar, IBIDS (International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements), IngentaConnect, MEDLINE, NLM Gateway, OvidSP, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Wilson Web searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1195 Serial 2689  
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Author Selby, A.; Smith-Osborne, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review of effectiveness of complementary and adjunct therapies and interventions involving equines Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Health Psychology Abbreviated Journal Health Psychol  
  Volume 32 Issue 4 Pages 418-432  
  Keywords Animal Assisted Therapy/methods; Animals; Chronic Disease/therapy; Combined Modality Therapy/methods; Complementary Therapies/methods; Horses; Humans; Psychotherapy/methods; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: This systematic review examines the empirical literature in an emerging body of evidence for the effectiveness of biopsychosocial interventions involving equines across populations with chronic illness or health challenges. METHOD: Selected quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed for inclusion; the gray literature and white papers were also explored. Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) criteria and Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) were applied to all studies. Fourteen full reports meeting a priori inclusion criteria were extracted from 103 studies accessed through 16 electronic databases and a hand search. Data were synthesized in relation to three research questions informing evidence-based practice. RESULTS: No randomized clinical trials were located. Two studies provided a moderate level of evidence for effectiveness. Nine studies demonstrated statistically significant positive effects. Three studies did not find significant psychosocial effects for the target group, although one found significant positive effects for the comparison group. CONCLUSION: In the aggregate, the evidence is promising in support of the effectiveness of complementary and adjunct interventions employing equines in the treatment of health challenges. Future studies are needed that utilize rigorous and creative designs, especially longitudinal studies and comparisons with established effective treatments.  
  Address Child and Family Guidance Centers, Plano, Texas, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/08/15  
  ISSN 1930-7810 (Electronic) 0278-6133 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Academic Search Complete, Alt HealthWatch, CINAHL Plus, EBSCO Animals, E-Journals, ERIC, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, MasterFILE Premier, MEDLINE, Professional Development Collection, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PubMed, Social Work Abstracts, and TOPICsearch searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1087 Serial 2592  
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Author Brelsford, V.L.; Meints, K.; Gee, N.R.; Pfeffer, K. doi  openurl
  Title Animal-Assisted Interventions in the Classroom-A Systematic Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Reseasrch and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health  
  Volume 14 Issue 7 Pages  
  Keywords AAT; Animal-assisted intervention; Animal-assisted Therapy; Children; Classroom; Dogs; School  
  Abstract The inclusion of animals in educational practice is becoming increasingly popular, but it is unclear how solid the evidence for this type of intervention is. The aim of this systematic review is to scrutinise the empirical research literature relating to animal-assisted interventions conducted in educational settings. The review included 25 papers; 21 from peer-reviewed journals and 4 obtained using grey literature databases. Most studies reported significant benefits of animal-assisted interventions in the school setting. Despite this, studies vary greatly in methods and design, in intervention types, measures, and sample sizes, and in the length of time exposed to an animal. Furthermore, a worrying lack of reference to risk assessment and animal welfare must be highlighted. Taken together, the results of this review show promising findings and emerging evidence suggestive of potential benefits related to animals in school settings. The review also indicates the need for a larger and more robust evidence base driven by thorough and strict protocols. The review further emphasises the need for safeguarding for all involved-welfare and safety are paramount.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire LN6 7TS, UK. vbrelsford@lincoln.ac.uk. School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire LN6 7TS, UK. kmeints@lincoln.ac.uk. Department of Psychology, State University of New York, Fredonia, NY 14063, USA. nancy.gee@fredonia.edu. WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Melton Mowbray, Leicstershire LE14 4RT, UK. nancy.gee@fredonia.edu. School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire LN6 7TS, UK. KPeffer@lincoln.ac.uk.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/06/24  
  ISSN 1660-4601 (Electronic) 1660-4601 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Academic Search Complete, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, Frontiers in Science, Medline, PyschArticles, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Scopus, Taylor & Francis online, and Web of Science (including Web of Knowledge) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1431 Serial 2890  
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Author Abrahao, R.M.C.M.; Nogueira, P.A.; Malucelli, M.I.C. url  openurl
  Title [Meat and milk black market – bovine tuberculosis] Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Archives of Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal Arch Vet Sci  
  Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Milk and Dairy Produce [QQ010]; Meat Produce [QQ030]; Food Contamination, Residues and Toxicology [QQ200]; Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Humans [VV210]; beef; disease transmission; food contamination; food hygiene; food safety; meat hygiene; milk; milk hygiene; reviews; zoonoses; Mycobacterium bovis; Brazil; Sao Paulo; Mycobacterium; Mycobacteriaceae; Firmicutes; bacteria; prokaryotes; South America; America; Developing Countries; Threshold Countries; Latin America; bovine tuberculosis; food contaminants; zoonotic infections; cattle; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract The contaminated meat and milk of cattle can transmit several diseases, like bovine tuberculosis, to humans. These diseases are usually zoonotic and occur worldwide causing losses in cattle farms and risking the health of the consumers. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of the meat and milk black market in Brazil. A bibliographical review of national and international publications was carried out by consulting Acervo, Higeia, Dedalus, Medline, Lilacs and Cab-abstract databases, besides the internet and newspaper articles. In this study, the aspects concerning the importance of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in man and animals is approached since its magnitude is still unknown in Brazil. It was observed that the meat and milk black markets needs urgent adoption of sanitary measures since they are one of causes of the public health problems in the country.  
  Address Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. remabra@usp.br  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Portuguese Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1517-784x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Acervo, Higeia, Dedalus, MEDLINE, LILACS and CAB Abstracts searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 282 Serial 2327  
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Author Ekong, P.S.; Sanderson, M.W.; Cernicchiaro, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Prevalence and concentration of Escherichia coli O157 in different seasons and cattle types processed in North America: A systematic review and meta-analysis of published research Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 121 Issue 1-2 Pages 74-85  
  Keywords Cattle; E. coli  
  Abstract Systematic review (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) methodologies were used to identify, critically evaluate and synthesize prevalence and concentration estimates for Escherichia coli O157 contamination along the beef production chain, and to illustrate differences based on cattle types and seasonality in North America from the scientific peer-reviewed literature. Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant articles. Two independent reviewers performed all SR steps. Random effects MA models were used to estimate the pooled prevalence and concentration of E. coli O157 in feces, hides and carcasses of cattle processed in North America, including their seasonal estimates. The potential sources of between studies heterogeneity were identified using meta-regression and sub-group analysis. Results indicated differences in the fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 among cattle types: 10.68% (95% CI: 9.17-12.28%) in fed beef, 4.65% (95% CI: 3.37-6.10%) in adult beef, and 1.79% (95% CI: 1.20-2.48%) in adult dairy. Fed beef fecal prevalence was 10.65% (95% CI: 8.93-12.49%) during summer and 9.17% (95% CI: 5.24-13.98%) during the winter months. For adult beef, the fecal prevalence was 7.86% (95% CI: 5.43-10.66%) during summer, and 4.21% (95% CI: 1.95-7.13%) during winter. Among adult dairy, the fecal prevalence was 2.27% (95% CI: 1.5-3.18%) during summer, and 0.36% (95% CI: 0.09-0.74%) during winter. There was a significantly higher percentage of hides with E. coli O157 concentration >/= 40 CFU/100 cm(2) on hides of fed beef sampled at the processing plant (23.81%; 95% CI: 14.79-34.15%) compared to those sampled at the feedlot (1.74%; 95% CI: 0.53-3.44%). Prevalence of E. coli O157 on carcass surfaces differed by season only at the post-evisceration stage, but decreased considerably through the subsequent processing stages. Country, study setting, detection method, hide swab area, and study design were identified as significant sources of heterogeneity among studies reporting prevalence of E. coli O157 along the beef production chain. The pooled prevalence and concentration estimates from this study provide a sound and reliable microbiological basis for risk assessment modeling of E. coli O157 and other pathogens in the food chain.  
  Address Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/07/15  
  ISSN 1873-1716 (Electronic) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Agricola (EBSCO), CAB Abstracts, Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA), and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1361 Serial 2832  
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Author Gadberry, M.S.; Hawley, J.; Beck, P.A.; Jennings, J.A.; Kegley, E.B.; Coffey, K.P. doi  openurl
  Title BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: A meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at reducing the impact of fescue toxicosis on cattle weight gain and feed intake Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 93 Issue 12 Pages 5496-5505  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovines; Fescue  
  Abstract The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at recovering cattle production losses attributed to toxic endophyte-infected [ (Morgan-Jones & Gams.) Glenn, Bacon, & Hanlin comb. Nov.] tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.]. The strategies presented include those 1) applied with forage systems, 2) based on pharmacological compounds and functional foods, and 3) based on supplemental dietary nutrients. Cattle BW gain and DM intake was the dependent response evaluated. Among the forage systems reviewed, studies with nontoxic, endophyte-infected tall fescue as a total replacement forage system demonstrated the greatest improvement in per-hectare (152 +/- 27.5 kg/ha) and per-animal (0.29 +/- 0.03 kg/d) BW gain. Studies with interseeded legumes have exhibited a small and highly variable BW gain effect size per hectare (52 +/- 24.1 kg/ha) and per animal (0.11 +/- 0.03 kg/d). The legume response was seasonal, with summer exhibiting the greatest benefit. Studies with chemicals that suppress plant growth demonstrated BW gain responses (0.17 +/- 0.06 kg/d) equal to or greater than the response observed with legume studies. Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue responded well to anthelmentics, antimicrobial feed additives, and steroid implants, and the use of these technologies may additively help recover production losses. As a group, functional foods have not improved BW gain ( = 0.85). Studies with cattle supplemented with highly digestible fiber supplements observed a 0.15 kg greater BW gain compared with studies using starch- and sugar-based supplements ( < 0.05). Weight gain was positively impacted by the level of supplementation (0.06 kg/DM intake as percent BW). Supplement feed conversion was estimated at 6:1 for the highly digestible fiber supplements compared with 11:1 for starch-based supplements. Tall fescue forage DM intake was predicted to maximize at a supplemental feeding rate of 0.24% BW with a breakpoint at 0.5% BW, and total maximum DM intake (forage plus supplement) occurred at 2.7% BW when supplemental feeding approached 0.9% BW. Results from this meta-analysis should be useful for 1) establishing and comparing measured responses to theoretical improvements in BW gain when additive strategies are considered, 2) research planning, and 3) producer education.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/12/08  
  ISSN 1525-3163 (Electronic) 0021-8812 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Agricola and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1393 Serial 2858  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author White, R.R.; Miller, P.S.; Hanigan, M.D. doi  openurl
  Title Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 93 Issue 11 Pages 5395-5410  
  Keywords Pigs; Swine; Heat stress; Feed intake  
  Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate heat stress feed intake models for growing swine using a data set assembled from the literature and to develop a series of new equations modeling the influence of the thermal environment and interactions between the thermal environmental and other factors on feed intake. A literature survey was conducted to identify studies assessing intake responses to temperature. The resulting data set comprised 35 studies containing 120 comparisons to thermoneutral intake. Intake as a fraction of thermoneutral intake (FFI) was the primary response variable, where a value of 1 represented no change from thermoneutral intake. The FFI predicted by NRC and a recent model from a meta-analysis (Renaudeau et al.,) were compared to observed values. New parameters for the NRC equation (NRCmod) were derived, and a series of new equations incorporating duration of exposure (TD), temperature cycling (TC), and floor type (TH) were also derived. Root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients were used to evaluate all models. The RMSPE for the NRC model was 23.6 with mean and slope bias accounting for 12.6% and 51.1% of prediction error, respectively. The TD, TC, and TH models had reduced RMSPE compared with NRC: 12.9 for TD, 12.6 for TC, and 12.9 for TS. Substantial improvements were also made by refitting parameters (NRCmod; RMSPE 13.0%). In NRCmod, TD, TC, and TH, random error was the predominant source, accounting for over 97% of prediction error. The Renaudeau et al. model was also evaluated. Renaudeau et al. had relatively low RMSPE (22.3) for intake but higher RMSPE for FFI (22.6) than NRC, NRCmod, TD, TC, or TH. Additional parameters were derived for the Renaudeau et al. equation to account for housing system and diet characteristics. This adjustment reduced RMSPE of predicting feed intake (16.0) and FFI (16.3) and reduced systematic bias in the equation. This evaluation of equations highlights the effects of novel explanatory variables on feed intake during heat stress, and the comparison can be useful when selecting a model that best explains variability in feed intake responses to heat stress given available input data.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/12/08  
  ISSN 1525-3163 (Electronic) 0021-8812 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1394 Serial 2859  
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Author Denagamage, T.; O'Connor, A.; Sargeant, J.; McKean, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The association between sub-therapeutic antibiotics and Salmonella Typhimurium in market-weight swine: a systematic review and summation of evidence from 1950 to 2007 Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Zoonoses and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Zoonoses Public Health  
  Volume 57 Issue 7-8 Pages e14-22  
  Keywords Animal Feed; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Body Weight; Food Safety; Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control; Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects/isolation & purification; Swine/microbiology; Swine Diseases/prevention & control; Pigs; Swine  
  Abstract A systematic review approach was used to evaluate the association between sub-therapeutic antibiotics in feed and Salmonella Typhimurium isolation in market-weight finisher swine raised in modern swine production systems. Fourteen challenge trials described the efficacy of different antibiotics after challenge with S. Typhimurium. The studies identified were of limited evidentiary value for the review question because they were not relevant to the review question, i.e. conducted in artificial settings on small numbers of young pigs. None of the studies reported using blinding during outcome assessment. No antibiotic regimen was evaluated more than once. The association between sub-therapeutic antibiotics and Salmonella outcomes in market-weight swine raised in modern production systems cannot be summarized using the currently available literature. Many available studies fail to report critical study design features such as blinding and/or to take into account the data generated from longitudinal studies.  
  Address Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2010/05/25  
  ISSN 1863-2378 (Electronic) 1863-1959 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGIRS (AGRIS?), Biological and Agricultural Index, Biological Abstracts, Biosis Previews, CAB Abstracts, Current Contents, Dissertation Abstracts, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Ingenta Gateway, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 644 Serial 2388  
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Author Kristensen, C.S.; Baadsgaard, N.P.; Toft, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis comparing the effect of PCV2 vaccines on average daily weight gain and mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 250-258  
  Keywords Animals; Circoviridae Infections/prevention & control; Circovirus/immunology; Female; Male; Mortality; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/prevention & control; Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage; Weaning; Weight Gain; Swine; Pigs  
  Abstract The aim of this investigation was, through a meta-analysis, to review the published literature concerning the effect of PCV2 vaccination on the average daily weight gain (ADG) and on the mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter. The review was restricted to studies investigating the effect of vaccines against PCV2 published from 2006 to 2008, identified using computerised literature databases. Only studies that met the following criteria were included: commercial vaccines were used, pigs or pens were assigned randomly to vaccination versus control groups in herds naturally infected with PCV2, and vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs were housed together. Furthermore, it was a requirement that sample size, age at vaccination, and production period were stated. The levels of ADG and mortality rate had to be comparable to those seen in modern intensive swine production. In total, 107 studies were identified; 70 were excluded because they did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and 13 were identical to results published elsewhere. A significant effect of PCV2 vaccination on ADG was found for pigs in all production phases. The largest increase in ADG was found for finishing pigs (41.5g) and nursery-finishing pigs (33.6g) with only 10.6g increase in the nursery pigs. Mortality rate was significantly reduced for finishing pigs (4.4%) and nursery-finishing pigs (5.4%), but not for nursery pigs (0.25%). Herds negative for PRRS had a significantly larger increase in ADG compared to herds positive for PRRS. The PRRS status had no effect on mortality rate.  
  Address Danish Agriculture and Food Council, Pig Research Centre, Vinkelvej 11, DK-8620 Kjellerup, Denmark. csk@lf.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/01/18  
  ISSN 1873-1716 (Electronic) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGRIS International, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts Online, Inside Conferences, MEDLINE, PASCAL, SciSearch and Wilson Biological & Agricultural Index searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 697 Serial 2476  
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Author Burns, M.J.; O'Connor, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of methodological quality and sources of variation in the magnitude of vaccine efficacy: a systematic review of studies from 1960 to 2005 reporting immunization with Moraxella bovis vaccines in young cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Vaccine Abbreviated Journal Vaccine  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 144-152  
  Keywords Animals; Bacterial Vaccines/immunology; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/immunology/prevention & control; Drug Evaluation/methods; Moraxella (Moraxella) bovis/immunology; Moraxellaceae Infections/immunology/prevention & control/veterinary  
  Abstract A review was conducted of all identified literature evaluating Moraxella bovis vaccines efficacy in preventing pinkeye in beef calves. From 292 publications identified by the search, data on 123 unique vaccine-to-control comparisons were extracted from 38 studies published in English from 1960 to 2005. Descriptive analysis was performed and an analysis of sources of variation evaluated. Use of methods to control bias such as randomization and blinding were associated with decreased vaccine efficacy. Only 15 trials reported using randomization and blinding. The authors conclude that when designing and reporting veterinary vaccination studies, researchers must include methodological quality information necessary to judge the evidence produced from the study.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Diagnostics and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 1715 Veterinary Medicine Building, Ames, IA 50011, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2007/12/07  
  ISSN 0264-410X (Print) 0264-410X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGRIS, Biological & Agricultural Index, Biological Abstracts, Biosis Previews, CAB Abstracts, Current Contents, Digital Dissertations, Ingenta, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 631 Serial 2369  
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Author Liu, Z.; Powers, W.; Liu, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Greenhouse gas emissions from swine operations: Evaluation of the IPCC approaches through meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 91 Issue 8 Pages 4017-4032  
  Keywords Air Pollutants/chemistry; Air Pollutants/metabolism; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Climate Change; Methane/chemistry; Methane/metabolism; Nitrous Oxide/chemistry; Nitrous Oxide/metabolism; Swine/physiology; Air Pollutants; Nitrous Oxide; Methane; Pigs; Swine  
  Abstract The objective was to provide a systematic review of the literature on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine operations, with a meta-analysis that integrates results of independent studies. A total of 53 studies that measured GHG emissions from swine operations were included in the analyses. Results showed that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approaches were effective in estimating the overall CH4 and N2O emission levels from swine operations, but the variation of the measured emissions is not adequately captured. An overestimation by the IPCC approaches for CH4 emissions was observed for swine buildings with pit systems in European studies and the average percentage relative difference (PRD) between the measured and the IPCC values is -21.1%. The observed CH4 emissions from lagoons were lower than the IPCC estimated values and the average PRD is -33.9%. In North American studies the observed N2O emission factors for swine buildings with pit systems were significantly lower than the IPCC default values, while in European studies they were significantly higher than the IPCC default values. The measured CH4 and N2O emissions were significantly affected by stage of production (P = 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively) and geographic regions (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The IPCC approaches were effective in simulating the effect of temperature on CH4 emissions from outdoor slurry storage facilities, while they could overestimate CH4 emissions from lagoons at low temperatures. The CH4 emissions from pits inside swine buildings were not significantly affected by average ambient temperatures. A positive relationship between diet CP content and CH4 emissions was confirmed in the meta-analysis. The obtained knowledge can be helpful in efforts to improve estimation of GHG emissions from swine operations.  
  Address Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 55506.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2013/06/06  
  ISSN 1525-3163 (Electronic) 0021-8812 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGRIS, Biological & Agricultural Index, Biological Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, CAB Reviews, Pig News and Information, Environment Complete, Pollution Abstracts, Conference Papers Index, Web of Science and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1116 Serial 2484  
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Author Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A review of prevalences of paratuberculosis in farmed animals in Europe Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 88 Issue 1 Pages 1-14  
  Keywords Animal Diseases/epidemiology/microbiology; Animals; Animals, Domestic/microbiology; Cattle; Europe/epidemiology; Goats; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/growth & development; Paratuberculosis/epidemiology/microbiology; Prevalence; Sheep  
  Abstract Prevalence estimates are used by decision makers such as policy makers and risk assessors to make choices related to certain diseases and infections. Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic infection particularly resulting in economic losses among farmed ruminants. Therefore, this infection is of concern for many farming industry decision makers. As a result, multiple studies have been carried out to determine the within-herd and between-herd prevalence of MAP infections. The objective of the present study was to conduct a review and, if possible, compare animal and herd level prevalences of MAP among farmed animals in Europe. European data on prevalences of MAP in all farmed animal species were included from a review of literature. Information on target population and study design, tests used and apparent prevalences were recorded, and subsequently true prevalences were calculated when possible. A critical review of the included studies indicated that although a wide range of studies have been conducted, likely and comparable true prevalence estimates could rarely be calculated. Based on a few studies where the prevalences appeared to be plausible, it was concluded that prevalences of MAP would have to be guesstimates based on available data. The true prevalence among cattle appeared to be approximately 20% and was at least 3-5% in several countries. Between-herd prevalence guesstimates appeared to be >50%. No countries had published sufficient information to claim freedom from MAP or just a near-zero prevalence of MAP infections. No within-flock prevalence estimates were available for goats and sheep. The between-flock prevalence guesstimates were >20%, based only on estimates from Switzerland and Spain. Major critical issues were identified in the majority of the studies, primarily due to lack of knowledge of the test accuracy of the diagnostic test used, or due to studies where the study population did not reflect the target population. Because most of the reported studies did not yield prevalence estimates which were comparable to other studies, there is a continuing need for well-designed studies of the prevalence of MAP infections.  
  Address Department of Large Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Gronnegardsvej 8, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ssn@life.ku.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2008/09/27  
  ISSN 0167-5877 (Print) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGRIS, Biological Abstracts/RPM, BIOSIS Previews, Biological Abstracts, CAB Abstracts and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 474 Serial 2524  
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Author Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ante mortem diagnosis of paratuberculosis: a review of accuracies of ELISA, interferon-gamma assay and faecal culture techniques Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Veterinary Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Vet Microbiol  
  Volume 129 Issue 3-4 Pages 217-235  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/diagnosis/microbiology; Deer; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods/veterinary; Feces/microbiology; Goat Diseases/diagnosis/microbiology; Goats; Interferon-gamma/analysis/immunology/metabolism; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/immunology/isolation & purification; Paratuberculosis/diagnosis/microbiology/pathology; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity; Severity of Illness Index; Sheep; Sheep Diseases/diagnosis/microbiology; Species Specificity  
  Abstract Infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be latent for years without affecting the animal, but the animal may become infectious or clinical at some point. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis can be a challenge primarily in latent stages of the infection, and different diagnosis interpretations are usually required by the variety of decision makers. The objective of this paper was to provide a critical review of reported accuracies of ELISA tests, interferon-gamma assays (IFN-gamma) and faecal culture (FC) techniques used for diagnosis of three defined target conditions: MAP infected, MAP infectious and MAP affected animals. For each animal species, target condition and diagnostic test-type, sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were summarised based on a systematic, critical review of information in literature databases. The diagnostic test information often varied substantially for tests of the same type and make, particularly ELISA, which was the most frequently reported test-type. Comparison of the various tests accuracies was generally not possible, but stratification of test-evaluations by target condition improved the interpretation of the test accuracies. Infectious and affected animals can often be detected, but Se for infected animals is generally low. A main conclusion of the review was that the quality of design, implementation and reporting of evaluations of tests for paratuberculosis is generally poor. Particularly, there is a need for better correspondence between the study population and target population, i.e. the subjects chosen for test evaluation should reflect the distribution of animals in the population where the test is intended to be used.  
  Address Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ssn@life.ku.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2008/02/08  
  ISSN 0378-1135 (Print) 0378-1135 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGRIS, Biological Abstracts/RPM, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 473 Serial 2523  
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Author Denagamage, T.N.; O'Connor, A.M.; Sargeant, J.M.; Rajic, A.; McKean, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Efficacy of vaccination to reduce Salmonella prevalence in live and slaughtered swine: a systematic review of literature from 1979 to 2007 Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Foodborne Pathogens and Disease Abbreviated Journal Foodborne Pathog Dis  
  Volume 4 Issue 4 Pages 539-549  
  Keywords Abattoirs; Animals; Body Weight; Consumer Product Safety; Food Contamination/prevention & control; Food Microbiology; Salmonella/growth & development/immunology; Salmonella Food Poisoning/prevention & control; Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology/prevention & control; Salmonella Vaccines/immunology; Swine/microbiology; Swine Diseases/epidemiology/prevention & control; Pigs; Swine  
  Abstract A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination to reduce Salmonella prevalence in market weight finisher swine. A search of online databases and selected conference proceedings was conducted to identify relevant studies. The review process followed relevance screening, methodological quality assessment, and data extraction. Although multiple outcomes were frequently reported, only outcomes describing culture of Salmonella were extracted. Five clinical trials and 23 challenge studies were considered likely relevant to the review as they described vaccination to reduce Salmonella in swine. Five clinical trials reported vaccination was associated with reduced isolation of Salmonella in market weight pigs, however, information required to assess the internal validity of the study was often not described in the manuscripts. All challenge studies assessed vaccine efficacy in pigs aged <15 weeks reducing the relevance of results to the review which focused on market weight pigs. Only five of the 23 challenge studies reported the majority of information necessary to evaluate the quality of vaccine studies. Given large variability in population type, sample size, type of vaccine, dose and dosing regimens, and type of outcomes observed, pooled data analysis was not possible, and therefore, a qualitative synthesis of the studies was conducted. Available evidence suggests that vaccination is associated with reduced Salmonella prevalence in swine at or near harvest; however, this conclusion is based on studies with design and reporting deficiencies that could potentially indicate biases with the outcome.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-1250, USA. thomasde@iastate.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2007/11/29  
  ISSN 1535-3141 (Print) 1535-3141 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGRIS, Biological and Agricultural Index, Biological Abstracts, Biosis Previews, CAB Abstracts, Current Contents, Dissertation Abstracts (ProQuest Digital Dissertations), Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Ingenta Gateway, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 645 Serial 2389  
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Author Pedersen, K.S.; Holyoake, P.; Stege, H.; Nielsen, J.P. doi  openurl
  Title Diagnostic performance of different fecal Lawsonia intracellularis-specific polymerase chain reaction assays as diagnostic tests for proliferative enteropathy in pigs: a review Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation Abbreviated Journal J Vet Diagn Invest  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 487-494  
  Keywords Animals; Desulfovibrionaceae Infections/diagnosis/microbiology/veterinary; Intestinal Diseases/diagnosis/microbiology/veterinary; Lawsonia Bacteria; Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods/veterinary; Swine; Swine Diseases/diagnosis/microbiology; Pigs  
  Abstract Traditionally, diagnosis of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated proliferative enteropathy (PE) has depended on necropsy and histology. Since the establishment of the etiologic role of L. intracellularis, a number of specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been developed for the detection of DNA in feces. The present article is a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on the application of L. intracellularis-specific fecal PCR as an antemortem diagnostic test for histologic lesions of PE in pigs. Based on this information, a range of diagnostic sensitivities (36-100%) and specificities (50-100%) of the published tests was calculated. Validity and confidence limits of the estimates varied considerably. The positive and negative predictive values of 6 different PCR assays were calculated for PE prevalence of 15%, 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, and 90%, using a histologic case definition of PE and based on the reported test sensitivities and specificities. The simulated predictive values suggested that applying the fecal PCR assay as a diagnostic test is more likely to overestimate than underestimate the number of pigs having histologic lesions of PE under field conditions.  
  Address Department of Large Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Groennegaardsvej 2, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ken@life.ku.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2010/07/14  
  ISSN 1040-6387 (Print) 1040-6387 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGRIS, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts and MEDLINE searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 747 Serial 2549  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Okura, H.; Toft, N.; Nielsen, S.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms: a systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Veterinary Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Vet Microbiol  
  Volume 157 Issue 3-4 Pages 253-263  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle/microbiology; Cattle Diseases/epidemiology/microbiology; Female; Food Contamination/analysis; Food Microbiology; Milk/microbiology; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification; Paratuberculosis/epidemiology/microbiology; Pasteurization; Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary; Prevalence; Cattle  
  Abstract Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn's disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow's milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published studies aiming at estimating the occurrence of MAP in on-farm BTM and IM by meta-analysis. A total of 692 articles were identified through electronic databases and initially screened using title and abstract. The quality of the 61 potentially relevant articles was assessed using full text and 31 articles were eventually included in the meta-analysis. The apparent prevalence (AP) of MAP in BTM and IM on farm were summarized in relation to strata defined by the test used to identify MAP and the infection status of the herds/animals. There was considerable inconsistency in the reporting, resulting in missing information potentially explaining the dispersion in the estimated AP. The overall AP and 95% confidence intervals based on PCR and culture of MAP were summarized to 0.10 (0.04-0.22) in BTM and 0.20 (0.12-0.32) in IM. Quantifying the MAP load in test-positive milk samples was not possible because very few articles provided quantitative information on individual samples.  
  Address Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Gronnegardsvej 8, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. hisako@life.ku.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/01/17  
  ISSN 1873-2542 (Electronic) 0378-1135 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) AGRICOLA, AGRIS, BIOSIS Reviews, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Web of Science and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 845 Serial 2537  
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