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Author Yun, Y.; Kim, K.; Choi, I.; Ko, S.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Topical herbal application in the management of atopic dermatitis: a review of animal studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Mediators of Inflammation Abbreviated Journal Mediators Inflamm  
  Volume 2014 Issue Pages (down) 752103  
  Keywords Administration, Topical Animals Dermatitis, Atopic/ drug therapy Plant Extracts/ administration & dosage/ therapeutic use Skin/drug effects/pathology  
  Abstract Herbs are widely used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Eastern Asian countries, and certain herbs regarded have anti-inflammatory properties that can help with AD. With the goal of developing a topical herbal agent for AD, we conducted a systematic review of in vivo studies of AD-like skin models for screening potential herbs. Searches were conducted from PubMed and EMBASE. After all, 22 studies were included for this review. We judged most of the domains of all studies to be at unclear risk of bias. Among 22 included studies, 21 herbs have been reported to reduce AD-like skin lesions in mouse models by suppressing Th2 cell response. Our findings may offer potential herbs for the topical application treatment of AD.  
  Address Department of Dermatology of Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Graduate School of Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea ; Department of Dermatology of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, No. 149 Sangil-dong, Gangdong-gu, Seoul 134-090, Republic of Korea. Department of Ophthalmology & Otorhinolaryngology & Dermatology of Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea. Department of Dermatology of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, No. 149 Sangil-dong, Gangdong-gu, Seoul 134-090, Republic of Korea ; Department of Ophthalmology & Otorhinolaryngology & Dermatology of Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea. Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/07/16  
  ISSN 1466-1861 (Electronic) 0962-9351 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Embase searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1320 Serial 2801  
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Author Adell, A.D.; Miller, W.A.; Harvey, D.J.; Van Wormer, E.; Wuertz, S.; Conrad, P.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Individual subject meta-analysis of parameters for Giardia duodenalis shedding in animal experimental models Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BioMed Research International Abbreviated Journal Biomed Res Int  
  Volume 2014 Issue Pages (down) 476142  
  Keywords Cattle; Mice; Rodents; Rats; Dogs; Cats; Animals; Bacterial Shedding; Diarrhea/parasitology; Disease Models, Animal; Feces/parasitology; Giardia lamblia/pathogenicity; Giardiasis/epidemiology; Giardiasis/parasitology; Giardiasis/veterinary; Humans; Prevalence  
  Abstract Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite with public health importance worldwide. While articles about animal model infectivity have been published for G. duodenalis, the studies have used diverse protocols and parameters to evaluate the infectivity of this protozoan parasite. Hence, the objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a meta-analysis of published literature for cyst shedding and diarrhea outcomes in animal models and (2) develop recommendations to help standardize experimental dose response studies. Results showed that, for the outcome of cyst shedding in faeces, the covariates of infective stage (cyst versus trophozoite), Giardia dose, and the interactions between doses and infective stage, as well as dose and species of experimental host, were all significant (P value </= 0.05). This study suggests inoculation of the experimental host with cysts rather than trophozoites and administration of higher doses of Giardia will most likely result in cyst shedding. Based on the results of this meta-analysis, the infective stage (cyst versus trophozoite), parasite dose, and the interactions between dose and infective stage, as well as dose and species of experimental host, should be considered when designing experimental dose response studies that will assist in the study of zoonotic neglected tropical diseases globally.  
  Address Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA ; Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Facultad de Ecologia y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 440, 8370251 Santiago, Chile. Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA ; One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA ; Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE), School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 ; School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/05/07  
  ISSN 2314-6141 (Electronic) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1227 Serial 2716  
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Author Garcia-Morante, B.; Segales, J.; Serrano, E.; Sibila, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Determinants for swine mycoplasmal pneumonia reproduction under experimental conditions: A systematic review and recursive partitioning analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages (down) e0181194  
  Keywords Swine; Pigs; Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; Pneumonia  
  Abstract One of the main Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) swine experimental model objectives is to reproduce mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP). Unfortunately, experimental validated protocols to maximize the chance to successfully achieve lung lesions induced by M. hyopneumoniae are not available at the moment. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify those factors that might have a major influence on the effective development of MP, measured as macroscopic lung lesions, under experimental conditions. Data from 85 studies describing M. hyopneumoniae inoculation experiments were compiled by means of a systematic review and analyzed thereafter. Several variables were considered in the analyses such as the number of pigs in the experiment, serological status against M. hyopneumoniae, source of the animals, age at inoculation, type of inoculum, strain of M. hyopneumoniae, route, dose and times of inoculation, study duration and co-infection with other swine pathogens. Descriptive statistics were used to depict M. hyopneumoniae experimental model main characteristics whereas a recursive partitioning approach, using regression trees, assessed the importance of the abovementioned experimental variables as MP triggering factors. A strong link between the time period between challenge and necropsies and lung lesion severity was observed. Results indicated that the most important factors to explain the observed lung lesion score variability were: (1) study duration, (2) M. hyopneumoniae strain, (3) age at inoculation, (4) co-infection with other swine pathogens and (5) animal source. All other studied variables were not relevant to explain the variability on M. hyopneumoniae lung lesions. The results provided in the present work may serve as a basis for debate in the search for a universally accepted M. hyopneumoniae challenge model.  
  Address IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Departament de Sanitat i Anatomia Animals, Facultat de Veterinaria, Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain. Departamento de Biologia and Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/07/26  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Medline searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1458 Serial 2914  
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Author Afanador-Villamizar, A.; Gomez-Romero, C.; Diaz, A.; Ruiz-Saenz, J. doi  openurl
  Title Avian influenza in Latin America: A systematic review of serological and molecular studies from 2000-2015 Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0179573  
  Keywords Birds: Avian; Avian influenza; Virus; Poultry  
  Abstract Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America. Methods were designed based on the PRISMA and STROME guidelines. Only peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 to 2015 and data was analysed based on country, viral subtype, avian species, and phylogenetic origins. From 271 studies initially found only twenty-six met our inclusion criteria. Evidence of AIVs infection was found in most Latin American countries, with Mexico as the country with the largest number of conducted studies and reported cases during the period analysed, followed by Chile and Argentina. Most of the AIVs were early reported through surveillance systems and at least 14 different subtypes of influenza viruses were reported in birds, and the presence of both low (92.9%) and high (7.1%) pathogenic AIVs was shown in Latin America. Of the reported AIVs in Latin America, 43.7% belong to migratory birds, 28.1% to local wild birds, and 28.1% to poultry. The migratory bird population mainly comprises families belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Charadriformes. We highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance systems and the possible role of different migratory birds in the transmission of AIVs within the Americas. Our findings demonstrate the limited information on AIVs in Latin America and highlight the need of more studies on AIVs at the regional level, particularly those focused on identifying the endemic subtypes in regional wild birds.  
  Address Semillero de Investigacion en enfermedades Infecciosas – InfeKto, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga, Colombia. PIC – Pig Improvement Company LATAM, Queretaro, Mexico. Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencias Animales GRICA, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga, Colombia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/06/21  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MedLine/PubMed and SciELO-Scientific Electronic Library Online searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1432 Serial 2887  
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Author Baudon, E.; Peyre, M.; Peiris, M.; Cowling, B.J. doi  openurl
  Title Epidemiological features of influenza circulation in swine populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0179044  
  Keywords Swine; Pigs; Influenza; Virus; Swine flu  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic virus with a swine origin stressed the importance of improving influenza surveillance in swine populations. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to describe epidemiological features of swine influenza (SI) across the world and identify factors impacting swine influenza virus surveillance. METHODS: The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. Articles published after 1990 containing data on SI on pig and herd-level seroprevalence, isolation and detection rates, and risk factors were included. Meta-regression analyses using seroprevalence and virological rates were performed. RESULTS: A total of 217 articles were included. Low avian influenza (AI) seroprevalence (means pig = 4.1%; herd = 15%) was found, showing that AIV do not readily establish themselves in swine while SIV seroprevalence was usually high across continents (influenza A means pig = 32.6-87.8%; herd = 29.3-100%). Higher pig density and number of pigs per farm were shown by the meta-regression analyses and/or the risk factor articles to be associated with higher SI seroprevalence. Lower seroprevalence levels were observed for countries with low-to-medium GDP. These results suggest that larger industrial farms could be more at risk of SIV circulation. Sampling swine with influenza-like illness (ILI) was positively associated with higher isolation rates; most studies in Europe, Latin and North America were targeting swine with ILI. CONCLUSIONS: To improve understanding of SI epidemiology, standardization of the design and reporting of SI epidemiological studies is desirable. Performance of SI surveillance systems in low-to-medium GDP countries should be evaluated to rule out technical issues linked to lower observed SIV prevalence. Targeting certain swine age groups, farming systems and swine with ILI may improve the surveillance cost-effectiveness. However, focusing on pigs with ILI may bias virus detection against strains less virulent for swine but which may be important as pandemic threats.  
  Address WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Animal and Integrated Risk Management Research Unit (AGIRs), French Agricultural Research Center for International Development (CIRAD), Montpellier, France.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/06/08  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1434 Serial 2889  
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Author Guldemond, R.A.R.; Purdon, A.; van Aarde, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review of elephant impact across Africa Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0178935  
  Keywords Elephants; Environment; Africa  
  Abstract Contradictory findings among scientific studies that address a particular issue may impede the conversion of science to management implementation. A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to generate a single outcome may overcome this problem. The contentious topic of the impact that a megaherbivore such as the savanna elephant have for other species and their environment can benefit from such an approach. After some 68 years, 367 peer-reviewed papers covered the topic and 51 of these papers provided sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis. We separated the direct impact that elephants had on trees and herbs from the indirect effects on other vertebrates, invertebrates, and soil properties. Elephants have an impact on tree structure and abundance but no overall negative cascading effects for species that share space with them. Primary productivity explained a small amount of variation of elephant impact on vegetation. Elephant numbers (density), study duration, rainfall, tree cover, and the presence of artificial water and fences failed to describe patterns of impact. We conclude that published information do not support the calls made for artificially manipulating elephant numbers to ameliorate elephant impact, and call for the management of space use by elephants to maintain savanna heterogeneity.  
  Address Conservation Ecology Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/06/08  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Biological Sciences, Scopus, Zoological Record and Wildlife Ecology and Studies Worldwide searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1435 Serial 2893  
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Author Mulero-Pazmany, M.; Jenni-Eiermann, S.; Strebel, N.; Sattler, T.; Negro, J.J.; Tablado, Z. doi  openurl
  Title Unmanned aircraft systems as a new source of disturbance for wildlife: A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0178448  
  Keywords Aircraft; Drones; Wildlife; Behaviour  
  Abstract The use of small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS; also known as “drones”) for professional and personal-leisure use is increasing enormously. UAS operate at low altitudes (<500 m) and in any terrain, thus they are susceptible to interact with local fauna, generating a new type of anthropogenic disturbance that has not been systematically evaluated. To address this gap, we performed a review of the existent literature about animals' responses to UAS flights and conducted a pooled analysis of the data to determine the probability and intensity of the disturbance, and to identify the factors influencing animals' reactions towards the small aircraft. We found that wildlife reactions depended on both the UAS attributes (flight pattern, engine type and size of aircraft) and the characteristics of animals themselves (type of animal, life-history stage and level of aggregation). Target-oriented flight patterns, larger UAS sizes, and fuel-powered (noisier) engines evoked the strongest reactions in wildlife. Animals during the non-breeding period and in large groups were more likely to show behavioral reactions to UAS, and birds are more prone to react than other taxa. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of wildlife disturbance and suggest guidelines for conservationists, users and manufacturers to minimize the impact of UAS. In addition, we propose that the legal framework needs to be adapted so that appropriate actions can be undertaken when wildlife is negatively affected by these emergent practices.  
  Address Swiss Ornithological Institute, Sempach, Switzerland. Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Seville, Spain. Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano Alto, Loja, Ecuador.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/06/22  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1459 Serial 2915  
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Author Pintar, K.D.; Christidis, T.; Thomas, M.K.; Anderson, M.; Nesbitt, A.; Keithlin, J.; Marshall, B.; Pollari, F. doi  openurl
  Title A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages (down) e0144976  
  Keywords Pet animals; Zoo animals; Campylobacter  
  Abstract Animal contact is a potential transmission route for campylobacteriosis, and both domestic household pet and petting zoo exposures have been identified as potential sources of exposure. Research has typically focussed on the prevalence, concentration, and transmission of zoonoses from farm animals to humans, yet there are gaps in our understanding of these factors among animals in contact with the public who don't live on or visit farms. This study aims to quantify, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter carriage in household pets and petting zoo animals. Four databases were accessed for the systematic review (PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science) for papers published in English from 1992-2012, and studies were included if they examined the animal population of interest, assessed prevalence or concentration with fecal, hair coat, oral, or urine exposure routes (although only articles that examined fecal routes were found), and if the research was based in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies were reviewed for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis by two reviewers, compiled into a database, and relevant studies were used to create a weighted mean prevalence value. There were insufficient data to run a meta-analysis of concentration values, a noted study limitation. The mean prevalence of Campylobacter in petting zoo animals is 6.5% based on 7 studies, and in household pets the mean is 24.7% based on 34 studies. Our estimated concentration values were: 7.65x103cfu/g for petting zoo animals, and 2.9x105cfu/g for household pets. These results indicate that Campylobacter prevalence and concentration are lower in petting zoo animals compared with household pets and that both of these animal sources have a lower prevalence compared with farm animals that do not come into contact with the public. There is a lack of studies on Campylobacter in petting zoos and/or fair animals in Canada and abroad. Within this literature, knowledge gaps were identified, and include: a lack of concentration data reported in the literature for Campylobacter spp. in animal feces, a distinction between ill and diarrheic pets in the reported studies, noted differences in shedding and concentrations for various subtypes of Campylobacter, and consistent reporting between studies.  
  Address Centre for Foodborne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Centre for Public Health and Zoonoses, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/12/20  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1391 Serial 2856  
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Author Belo, V.S.; Werneck, G.L.; da Silva, E.S.; Barbosa, D.S.; Struchiner, C.J. doi  openurl
  Title Population Estimation Methods for Free-Ranging Dogs: A Systematic Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages (down) e0144830  
  Keywords Dogs; Canines; Free-roaming; Population control  
  Abstract The understanding of the structure of free-roaming dog populations is of extreme importance for the planning and monitoring of populational control strategies and animal welfare. The methods used to estimate the abundance of this group of dogs are more complex than the ones used with domiciled owned dogs. In this systematic review, we analyze the techniques and the results obtained in studies that seek to estimate the size of free-ranging dog populations. Twenty-six studies were reviewed regarding the quality of execution and their capacity to generate valid estimates. Seven of the eight publications that take a simple count of the animal population did not consider the different probabilities of animal detection; only one study used methods based on distances; twelve relied on capture-recapture models for closed populations without considering heterogeneities in capture probabilities; six studies applied their own methods with different potential and limitations. Potential sources of bias in the studies were related to the inadequate description or implementation of animal capturing or viewing procedures and to inadequacies in the identification and registration of dogs. Thus, there was a predominance of estimates with low validity. Abundance and density estimates carried high variability, and all studies identified a greater number of male dogs. We point to enhancements necessary for the implementation of future studies and to potential updates and revisions to the recommendations of the World Health Organization with respect to the estimation of free-ranging dog populations.  
  Address Departamento de Endemias Samuel Pessoa, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Campus Centro-Oeste Dona Lindu, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei, Divinopolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Departamento de Epidemiologia – Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/12/18  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, Scopus, CAB Abstracts, ProQuest and Google Scholar searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1392 Serial 2857  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Simeone, C.A.; Gulland, F.M.; Norris, T.; Rowles, T.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Systematic Review of Changes in Marine Mammal Health in North America, 1972-2012: The Need for a Novel Integrated Approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 10 Issue 11 Pages (down) e0142105  
  Keywords Marine mammals; Neoplasia; Toxicosis; Viruses; Leptospirosis; Protozoa, Fungi  
  Abstract Marine mammals are often cited as “sentinels of ocean health” yet accessible, synthesized data on their health changes that could effectively warn of ocean health changes are rare. The objectives of this study were to 1) perform a systematic review of published cases of marine mammal disease to determine spatial and temporal trends in disease from 1972-2012, including changes in regions and taxa affected and specific causes; and 2) compare numbers of published cases of neoplasia with known, hospital-based neoplasia records to explore the causes of discrepancy between numbers of published cases and true disease trends. Peer-reviewed literature was compiled, and data were collected from The Marine Mammal Center database in Sausalito, California for comparison of numbers of neoplasia cases. Toxicoses from harmful algal blooms appear to be increasing. Viral epidemics are most common along the Atlantic U.S. coastline, while bacterial epidemics, especially leptospirosis, are most common along the Pacific coast. Certain protozoal and fungal zoonoses appear to be emerging, such as Toxoplasma gondii in southern sea otters in California, and Cryptococcus gattii in cetaceans in the Pacific Northwest. Disease reports were most common from California where pinniped populations are large, but increased effort also occurs. Anthropogenic trauma remains a large threat to marine mammal health, through direct mortality and indirect chronic disease. Neoplasia cases were under-reported from 2003-2012 when compared to true number of cases, and over-reported in several years due to case duplication. Peer-reviewed literature greatly underestimates the true magnitude of disease in marine mammals as it focuses on novel findings, fails to reflect etiology of multifactorial diseases, rarely reports prevalence rather than simple numbers of cases, and is typically presented years after a disease first occurs. Thus literature cannot guide management actions adequately, nor inform indices of ocean health. A real-time, nationally centralized system for reporting marine mammal disease data is needed to be able to understand how marine mammal diseases are changing with ecosystem changes, and before these animals can truly be considered 'sentinels of ocean health'.  
  Address The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California, United States of America. Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/11/19  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?), and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1371 Serial 2840  
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Author Lundin, O.; Rundlof, M.; Smith, H.G.; Fries, I.; Bommarco, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Impacts on Bees: A Systematic Review of Research Approaches and Identification of Knowledge Gaps Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PloS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 10 Issue 8 Pages (down) e0136928  
  Keywords Bees  
  Abstract It has been suggested that the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides threatens bees, but research on this topic has been surrounded by controversy. In order to synthesize which research approaches have been used to examine the effect of neonicotinoids on bees and to identify knowledge gaps, we systematically reviewed research on this subject that was available on the Web of Science and PubMed in June 2015. Most of the 216 primary research studies were conducted in Europe or North America (82%), involved the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (78%), and concerned the western honey bee Apis mellifera (75%). Thus, little seems to be known about neonicotinoids and bees in areas outside Europe and North America. Furthermore, because there is considerable variation in ecological traits among bee taxa, studies on honey bees are not likely to fully predict impacts of neonicotinoids on other species. Studies on crops were dominated by seed-treated maize, oilseed rape (canola) and sunflower, whereas less is known about potential side effects on bees from the use of other application methods on insect pollinated fruit and vegetable crops, or on lawns and ornamental plants. Laboratory approaches were most common, and we suggest that their capability to infer real-world consequences are improved when combined with information from field studies about realistic exposures to neonicotinoids. Studies using field approaches often examined only bee exposure to neonicotinoids and more field studies are needed that measure impacts of exposure. Most studies measured effects on individual bees. We suggest that effects on the individual bee should be linked to both mechanisms at the sub-individual level and also to the consequences for the colony and wider bee populations. As bees are increasingly facing multiple interacting pressures future research needs to clarify the role of neonicotinoids in relative to other drivers of bee declines.  
  Address Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden; University of California, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Davis, California 95616, United States of America. Lund University, Department of Biology, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. Lund University, Department of Biology, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden; Lund University, Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/08/28  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1364 Serial 2834  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mueller, K.F.; Briel, M.; Strech, D.; Meerpohl, J.J.; Lang, B.; Motschall, E.; Gloy, V.; Lamontagne, F.; Bassler, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dissemination bias in systematic reviews of animal research: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 12 Pages (down) e116016  
  Keywords Animals; Animal experimentation  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research. METHODS: Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al. RESULTS: The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%), nor did they assess heterogeneity (81%) or dissemination bias (87%). Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%). DISCUSSION: Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before translating them to a clinical context.  
  Address Center for Pediatric Clinical Studies, University Children's Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany. Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. CELLS – Center for Ethics and Law in Life Sciences, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany. German Cochrane Centre, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Center for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Clinical Research Centre Clinique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada. Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich, Switzerland.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/12/30  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE, Embase, Toxnet and ScienceDirect searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1296 Serial 2781  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lean, I.J.; Thompson, J.M.; Dunshea, F.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis of zilpaterol and ractopamine effects on feedlot performance, carcass traits and shear strength of meat in cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PloS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 12 Pages (down) e115904  
  Keywords Cattle  
  Abstract This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and study assessment using PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scirus, and CAB and identification of other studies from reference lists in papers and searches. Searches were based on the key words: zilpaterol, zilmax, ractopamine, optaflexx, cattle and beef. Studies from theses obtained were included. Data were extracted from more than 50 comparisons for both agents and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. Both agents markedly increased weight gain, hot carcase weight and longissimus muscle area and increased the efficiency of gain:feed. These effects were particularly large for ZH, however, fat thickness was decreased by ZH, but not RAC. Zilpaterol also markedly increased WBSF by 1.2 standard deviations and more than 0.8 kg, while RAC increased WBSF by 0.43 standard deviations and 0.2 kg. There is evidence in the ZH studies, in particular, of profound re-partitioning of nutrients from fat to protein depots. This work has provided critically needed information on the effects of ZH and RAC on production, efficiency and meat quality.  
  Address SBScibus, Camden, New South Wales, Australia. Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia. School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/12/31  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scirus and CAB (Abstracts) searched Approved no  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1291 Serial 2778  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bermingham, E.N.; Thomas, D.G.; Cave, N.J.; Morris, P.J.; Butterwick, R.F.; German, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PloS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 10 Pages (down) e109681  
  Keywords Dogs  
  Abstract A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (+/- standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8+/-55.3 kcal.kgBW-0.75.day-1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW-0.93.day-1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.  
  Address Food Nutrition & Health Team, Food & Bio-based Products, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Centre of Feline Nutrition, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand; Institute of Veterinary Animal Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Institute of Veterinary Animal Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. WALTHAM Centre of Pet Nutrition, Mars Petcare, Waltham on the Wolds, Leicestershire, United Kingdom. Department of Obesity and Endocrinology, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/10/15  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE, BIOSIS, FSTA, CAB Abstracts, SCOPUS and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1261 Serial 2749  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Agunos, A.; Waddell, L.; Leger, D.; Taboada, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 8 Pages (down) e104905  
  Keywords Chickens; Poultry; Broilers; Campylobacter Infections  
  Abstract Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to strengthen our understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in broilers at the farm-level. This systematic review emphasizes the importance of improved industry-level and on-farm risk management strategies to reduce pre-harvest Campylobacter in broilers.  
  Address Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, Ontario, Canada; Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada; Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/08/30  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMED, Scopus, Current Contents and Food Safety and Technology Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1250 Serial 2738  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hirst, J.A.; Howick, J.; Aronson, J.K.; Roberts, N.; Perera, R.; Koshiaris, C.; Heneghan, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The need for randomization in animal trials: an overview of systematic reviews Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages (down) e98856  
  Keywords Animal Experimentation; Animals; Bias (Epidemiology); Research Design; Review Literature as Topic; Laboratory animals  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Randomization, allocation concealment, and blind outcome assessment have been shown to reduce bias in human studies. Authors from the Collaborative Approach to Meta Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) collaboration recently found that these features protect against bias in animal stroke studies. We extended the scope the work from CAMARADES to include investigations of treatments for any condition. METHODS: We conducted an overview of systematic reviews. We searched Medline and Embase for systematic reviews of animal studies testing any intervention (against any control) and we included any disease area and outcome. We included reviews comparing randomized versus not randomized (but otherwise controlled), concealed versus unconcealed treatment allocation, or blinded versus unblinded outcome assessment. RESULTS: Thirty-one systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria: 20 investigated treatments for experimental stroke, 4 reviews investigated treatments for spinal cord diseases, while 1 review each investigated treatments for bone cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, glioma, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and treatments used in emergency medicine. In our sample 29% of studies reported randomization, 15% of studies reported allocation concealment, and 35% of studies reported blinded outcome assessment. We pooled the results in a meta-analysis, and in our primary analysis found that failure to randomize significantly increased effect sizes, whereas allocation concealment and blinding did not. In our secondary analyses we found that randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding reduced effect sizes, especially where outcomes were subjective. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the need for randomization, allocation concealment, and blind outcome assessment in animal research across a wide range of outcomes and disease areas. Since human studies are often justified based on results from animal studies, our results suggest that unduly biased animal studies should not be allowed to constitute part of the rationale for human trials.  
  Address Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/06/07  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE and Embase searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1229 Serial 2718  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Diraviyam, T.; Zhao, B.; Wang, Y.; Schade, R.; Michael, A.; Zhang, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against diarrhea in domesticated animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PloS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages (down) e97716  
  Keywords Animal Diseases/drug therapy; Animals; Cattle; Chickens; Diarrhea/drug therapy; Diarrhea/veterinary; Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use; MEDLINE; Mice; IgY; Immunoglobulins; Pigs; Swine  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. METHODS AND RESULTS: Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012). A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR) of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets – 22; Mice – 14; Poultry – 7 and Calves – 6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment – prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type – bacterial or viral). Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: The present systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative strategies are indispensable.  
  Address College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. Institute of Pharmacology, Charite – Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. PSG College of Arts and Science, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/05/23  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE, Embase, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Research Publish and Chinese articles from Core periodicals searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1223 Serial 2712  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Islam, M.Z.; Musekiwa, A.; Islam, K.; Ahmed, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Ahad, A.; Biswas, P.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Regional variation in the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle: a meta-analysis and meta-regression Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 4 Pages (down) e93299  
  Keywords Cattle  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157) infection has been recognized as an important global public health concern. But information on the prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global and at the wider geographical levels is limited, if not absent. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate the point prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global level and to explore the factors contributing to variation in prevalence estimates. METHODS: Seven electronic databases- CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Biosis Citation Index, Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scirus and Scopus were searched for relevant publications from 1980 to 2012. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce the pooled estimates. The potential sources of between study heterogeneity were identified using meta-regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 140 studies consisting 220,427 cattle were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence estimate of EcO157 in cattle at the global level was 5.68% (95% CI, 5.16-6.20). The random effects pooled prevalence estimates in Africa, Northern America, Oceania, Europe, Asia and Latin America-Caribbean were 31.20% (95% CI, 12.35-50.04), 7.35% (95% CI, 6.44-8.26), 6.85% (95% CI, 2.41-11.29), 5.15% (95% CI, 4.21-6.09), 4.69% (95% CI, 3.05-6.33) and 1.65% (95% CI, 0.77-2.53), respectively. Between studies heterogeneity was evidenced in most regions. World region (p<0.001), type of cattle (p<0.001) and to some extent, specimens (p = 0.074) as well as method of pre-enrichment (p = 0.110), were identified as factors for variation in the prevalence estimates of EcO157 in cattle. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the organism seems to be higher in the African and Northern American regions. The important factors that might have influence in the estimates of EcO157 are type of cattle and kind of screening specimen. Their roles need to be determined and they should be properly handled in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of EcO157.  
  Address Department of Microbiology, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Chittagong Veterinary Laboratory, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/04/03  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Biosis Citation Index, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge (Web of Science), Scirus and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1208 Serial 2699  
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Author van Luijk, J.; Bakker, B.; Rovers, M.M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.; de Vries, R.B.; Leenaars, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Systematic reviews of animal studies; missing link in translational research? Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages (down) e89981  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The methodological quality of animal studies is an important factor hampering the translation of results from animal studies to a clinical setting. Systematic reviews of animal studies may provide a suitable method to assess and thereby improve their methodological quality. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the risk of bias assessment in animal-based systematic reviews, and 2) to study the internal validity of the primary animal studies included in these systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched Pubmed and Embase for SRs of preclinical animal studies published between 2005 and 2012. RESULTS: A total of 91 systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. The risk of bias was assessed in 48 (52.7%) of these 91 systematic reviews. Thirty-three (36.3%) SRs provided sufficient information to evaluate the internal validity of the included studies. Of the evaluated primary studies, 24.6% was randomized, 14.6% reported blinding of the investigator/caretaker, 23.9% blinded the outcome assessment, and 23.1% reported drop-outs. CONCLUSIONS: To improve the translation of animal data to clinical practice, systematic reviews of animal studies are worthwhile, but the internal validity of primary animal studies needs to be improved. Furthermore, risk of bias should be assessed by systematic reviews of animal studies to provide insight into the reliability of the available evidence.  
  Address SYRCLE – Central Animal Laboratory, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Departments for Health Evidence and Operating rooms, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/03/29  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Embase searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1209 Serial 2700  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Halsby, K.D.; Walsh, A.L.; Campbell, C.; Hewitt, K.; Morgan, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Healthy animals, healthy people: zoonosis risk from animal contact in pet shops, a systematic review of the literature Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages (down) e89309  
  Keywords Animals; Commerce; Humans; Pets; Risk Assessment; Zoonoses/transmission; Zoonoses; Pet animals; Pet shops  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Around 67 million pets are owned by households in the United Kingdom, and an increasing number of these are exotic animals. Approximately a third of pets are purchased through retail outlets or direct from breeders. A wide range of infections can be associated with companion animals. OBJECTIVES: This study uses a systematic literature review to describe the transmission of zoonotic disease in humans associated with a pet shop or other location selling pets (incidents of rabies tracebacks and zoonoses from pet food were excluded). DATA SOURCES: PubMed and EMBASE. RESULTS: Fifty seven separate case reports or incidents were described in the 82 papers that were identified by the systematic review. Summary information on each incident is included in this manuscript. The infections include bacterial, viral and fungal diseases and range in severity from mild to life threatening. Infections associated with birds and rodents were the most commonly reported. Over half of the reports describe incidents in the Americas, and three of these were outbreaks involving more than 50 cases. Many of the incidents identified relate to infections in pet shop employees. LIMITATIONS: This review may have been subject to publication bias, where unusual and unexpected zoonotic infections may be over-represented in peer-reviewed publications. It was also restricted to English-language articles so that pathogens that are more common in non-Western countries, or in more exotic animals not common in Europe and the Americas, may have been under-represented. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: A wide spectrum of zoonotic infections are acquired from pet shops. Salmonellosis and psittacosis were the most commonly documented diseases, however more unusual infections such as tularemia also appeared in the review. Given their potential to spread zoonotic infection, it is important that pet shops act to minimise the risk as far as possible.  
  Address Gastrointestinal, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections Department, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom. Centre for the Epidemiological Study of Sexually Transmitted Infections and AIDS of Catalonia (CEEISCAT) – ICO, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain. Gastrointestinal, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections Department, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom, ; London/KSS Specialty School of Public Health, London Deanery, London, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/03/04  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Embase searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1213 Serial 2704  
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