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Author (up) Brainard, B.M.; Goggs, R.; Mendez-Angulo, J.L.; Mudge, M.C.; Ralph, A.G.; Wiinberg, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Systematic evaluation of evidence on veterinary viscoelastic testing Part 5: Nonstandard assays Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001) Abbreviated Journal J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio)  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 57-62  
  Keywords Animals; Blood Specimen Collection/methods; Blood Specimen Collection/standards; Blood Specimen Collection/veterinary; Cats/blood; Dogs/blood; Horses/blood; Reference Standards; Thrombelastography/instrumentation; Thrombelastography/methods; Thrombelastography/veterinary; Veterinary Medicine/standards; Animals; Dogs; Cats; Horses  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To systematically examine the evidence on nontraditional uses of viscoelastic coagulation monitoring in veterinary species. DESIGN: Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature, categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence and quality, and development of consensus on conclusions for application of the concepts to clinical practice. SETTING: Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. RESULTS: Databases searched included Medline, CAB abstracts, and Google Scholar. CONCLUSIONS: Nontraditional assays identified included thrombelastography (TEG)-PlateletMapping (PM), functional fibrinogen assessment, and rapid-TEG (r-TEG). Direct veterinary evidence was found for only the ADP-activated PM, which appears to generate valid data in dogs but not cats or horses. Arachidonic acid activated PM shows high variability and requires further assessment and validation in veterinary species. Functional fibrinogen assays may be performed in veterinary species but may require modification due to species differences in response to abciximab. While tissue factor (TF)-activated TEG has been well described in the veterinary literature, the specific r-TEG assay has not been assessed, but presumably would be effective for generating TEG tracings and values for maximum amplitude and angle in shorter periods of time than some traditional assays.  
  Address Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/01/15  
  ISSN 1476-4431 (Electronic) 1476-4431 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1186 Serial 2680  
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Author (up) Brelsford, V.L.; Meints, K.; Gee, N.R.; Pfeffer, K. doi  openurl
  Title Animal-Assisted Interventions in the Classroom-A Systematic Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Reseasrch and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health  
  Volume 14 Issue 7 Pages  
  Keywords AAT; Animal-assisted intervention; Animal-assisted Therapy; Children; Classroom; Dogs; School  
  Abstract The inclusion of animals in educational practice is becoming increasingly popular, but it is unclear how solid the evidence for this type of intervention is. The aim of this systematic review is to scrutinise the empirical research literature relating to animal-assisted interventions conducted in educational settings. The review included 25 papers; 21 from peer-reviewed journals and 4 obtained using grey literature databases. Most studies reported significant benefits of animal-assisted interventions in the school setting. Despite this, studies vary greatly in methods and design, in intervention types, measures, and sample sizes, and in the length of time exposed to an animal. Furthermore, a worrying lack of reference to risk assessment and animal welfare must be highlighted. Taken together, the results of this review show promising findings and emerging evidence suggestive of potential benefits related to animals in school settings. The review also indicates the need for a larger and more robust evidence base driven by thorough and strict protocols. The review further emphasises the need for safeguarding for all involved-welfare and safety are paramount.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire LN6 7TS, UK. vbrelsford@lincoln.ac.uk. School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire LN6 7TS, UK. kmeints@lincoln.ac.uk. Department of Psychology, State University of New York, Fredonia, NY 14063, USA. nancy.gee@fredonia.edu. WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Melton Mowbray, Leicstershire LE14 4RT, UK. nancy.gee@fredonia.edu. School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire LN6 7TS, UK. KPeffer@lincoln.ac.uk.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/06/24  
  ISSN 1660-4601 (Electronic) 1660-4601 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Academic Search Complete, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, Frontiers in Science, Medline, PyschArticles, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Scopus, Taylor & Francis online, and Web of Science (including Web of Knowledge) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1431 Serial 2890  
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Author (up) Brioudes, A.; Warner, J.; Hedlefs, R.; Gummow, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A review of domestic animal diseases within the Pacific Islands region Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume 132 Issue Pages 23-38  
  Keywords Cats; Cattle; Dogs; Donkeys; Goats; Horses; Pigs; Swine; Poultry; Sheep  
  Abstract The Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) are reported to be free of the most serious infectious livestock diseases which are prevalent in other parts of the globe, such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Foot and Mouth Disease or Rabies. Yet there is a lack of scientifically based evidence to confirm this animal health status. This paper reviews what has been published on diseases of domestic animals in the Pacific Islands region with a particular focus on data from the last 20 years (1992-2012). Relevant published papers were identified by a computerized literature search of two electronic databases (PubMed and Web of Knowledge). The latest reports on the animal health situation submitted by the PICTs to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) were accessed on the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and included in this review. Additionally, paper searches of resources were undertaken at the library of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) in Fiji to retrieve any relevant grey literature for this review. The study eligibility criteria included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease (bacterial, viral, parasitic and other health disorders) affecting domestic terrestrial animals (mammals, reptiles, birds and bees) in any of the 22 PICTs members of the SPC. A total of 158 eligible references were retrieved of which only 77 (48.7%) were published since 1992 and analysed in more details. One hundred and one diseases and pathogens were reported on for bee, bird, carabao, cat, cattle, crocodile, deer, dog, donkey, goat, horse, pig, pigeon, poultry and sheep in the Oceania region and in 17 PICTs in particular. The paper gives information about known animal diseases, their reported prevalence and diseases not reported within the Pacific Islands region. The study found retrieved literature on animal diseases in PICTs was scarce and no longer up to date. There is a need to improve the published knowledge on the current animal disease status in the region.  
  Address School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Molecular Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, QLD, Australia. Electronic address: Aurelie.Brioudes@my.jcu.edu.au. Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/01/07  
  ISSN 1873-6254 (Electronic) 0001-706X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1231 Serial 2720  
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Author (up) Brossi, P.M.; Moreira, J.J.; Machado, T.S.; Baccarin, R.Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Platelet-rich plasma in orthopedic therapy: a comparative systematic review of clinical and experimental data in equine and human musculoskeletal lesions Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Vet Res Abbreviated Journal BMC veterinary research  
  Volume 11 Epublication ahead of print Issue 1 Pages 98  
  Keywords Horses  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to present and critically appraise the available information on the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in equine and human orthopedic therapeutics and to verify the influence of study design and methodology on the assumption of PRP's efficacy. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, Bireme and Google Scholar without restrictions until July 2013. Randomized trials, human cohort clinical studies or case series with a control group on the use of PRP in tendons, ligaments or articular lesions were included. Equine clinical studies on the same topics were included independently of their design. Experimental studies relevant to the clarification of PRP's effects and mechanisms of action in tissues of interest, conducted in any animal species, were selected. RESULTS: This review included 123 studies. PRP's beneficial effects were observed in 46.7% of the clinical studies, while the absence of positive effects was observed in 43.3%. Among experimental studies, 73% yielded positive results, and 7.9% yielded negative results. The most frequent flaws in the clinical trials' designs were the lack of a true placebo group, poor product characterization, insufficient blinding, small sampling, short follow-up periods, and adoption of poor outcome measures. The methods employed for PRP preparation and administration and the selected outcome measures varied greatly. Poor study design was a common feature of equine clinical trials. From studies in which PRP had beneficial effects, 67.8% had an overall high risk of bias. From the studies in which PRP failed to exhibit beneficial effects, 67.8% had an overall low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Most experimental studies revealed positive effects of PRP. Although the majority of equine clinical studies yielded positive results, the human clinical trials' results failed to corroborate these findings. In both species, beneficial results were more frequently observed in studies with a high risk of bias. The use of PRP in musculoskeletal lesions, although safe and promising, has still not shown strong evidence in clinical scenarios.  
  Address Department of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. ptbrossi@uol.com.br. Department of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. ju_veterinaria@yahoo.com.br. Department of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. tsodrelima@gmail.com. Department of Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. baccarin@usp.br.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/04/22  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Medline, PubMed, Embase, Bireme and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1338 Serial 2814  
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Author (up) Bucher, O.; Farrar, A.M.; Totton, S.C.; Wilkins, W.; Waddell, L.A.; Wilhelm, B.J.; McEwen, S.A.; Fazil, A.; Rajic, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review-meta-analysis of chilling interventions and a meta-regression of various processing interventions for Salmonella contamination of chicken Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 103 Issue 1 Pages 1-15  
  Keywords Animals; Chickens; Cold Temperature; Disinfection/methods; Food Contamination/prevention & control; Food Handling/methods; Food Microbiology; Humans; Meat/microbiology; Regression Analysis; Salmonella/drug effects/growth & development; Salmonella Infections/prevention & control; Poultry  
  Abstract CONTEXT: The results of individual studies investigating the efficacy of chilling and other processing interventions on Salmonella prevalence or concentration in broiler chicken carcasses are inconsistent or contradictory. OBJECTIVE: Determine efficacy of chilling on reducing Salmonella prevalence or concentration on broiler carcasses using systematic review-meta-analysis, and explore sources of heterogeneity among studies investigating various processing interventions through meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search included electronic search in six databases, manual search of reference lists of topic-related articles, and consultation with five topic experts to assure that all relevant intervention research was identified. STUDY INCLUSION: Primary intervention research, published in English, encompassing control, challenge, cohort, or before-and-after study designs investigating the efficacy of any chilling or other processing interventions on Salmonella prevalence or concentration in broiler chicken carcasses. RISK OF BIAS ASSESSMENT AND DATA EXTRACTION: Data pertaining to study methodology and reported results, chilling or other processing intervention parameters, populations sampled and outcomes measured were assessed for methodological soundness and extracted by two independent reviewers using pretested checklists. RESULTS: Random-effects meta-analyses of immersion chilling with chlorine (n=9 trials), acetic acid (n=16) and potable water (n=13) trended towards reductions in the odds or log(10)CFU/ml of Salmonella. Significant heterogeneity (P-value</=0.1 and I(2)>25%) precluded the reporting of pooled summary effect estimates. Meta-regression of all processing interventions indicated that serotype, disinfectant type and treatment time and pH were significantly associated with studies reporting reductions in concentration while study design, population sampled, study setting, publication date, intervention and disinfectant type, and treatment pH were significantly associated with studies reporting reductions in prevalence. Methodological and reporting flaws were consistently observed in relevant intervention research as well as a lack of studies conducted under commercial conditions and using Salmonella concentration outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Chilling may be effective at reducing Salmonella concentration and prevalence, but significant heterogeneity precluded reporting of pooled summary effect estimates for many chilling interventions. Investigations into potential sources of heterogeneity among all processing interventions found that the use of other chemical disinfectants, such as organic acids and surfactants might result in larger reductions in Salmonella contamination than more commonly utilized oxidizing agents like chlorine.  
  Address Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/10/14  
  ISSN 1873-1716 (Electronic) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes AGRICOLA, CAB, CAB Global Health, Current Contents, MEDLINE and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 629 Serial 2366  
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Author (up) Bucher, O.; Rajic, A.; Waddell, L.A.; Greig, J.; McEwen, S.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do any spray or dip treatments, applied on broiler chicken carcasses or carcass parts, reduce Salmonella spp. prevalence and/or concentration during primary processing? A systematic review-meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Food Control Abbreviated Journal Food Contr  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 351-361  
  Keywords Meat Produce [QQ030]; Information and Documentation [CC300]; Techniques and Methodology [ZZ900]; Food Processing (General) [QQ100]; Food Contamination, Residues and Toxicology [QQ200]; Meat Producing Animals [LL120]; Food Service [QQ700]; broilers; carcasses; characterization; data analysis; databases; evaluation; food safety; lactic acid; meat; meta-analysis; methodology; pilot projects; poultry; processing; randomized controlled trials; research; reviews; fowls; Salmonella; Gallus gallus; Gallus; Phasianidae; Galliformes; birds; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Gammaproteobacteria; Proteobacteria; Bacteria; prokaryotes; bacterium; chickens; data banks; domesticated birds; lactate; methods; studies; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract Context: Broiler chicken carcass spray and dip treatments are just two of many different interventions investigated to address the need to reduce Salmonella prevalence and concentration on broiler chicken carcasses during processing. However the results of published research are inconsistent and sometimes contradictory creating a need to formally evaluate, synthesize and summarize available research to avoid recommending ineffective treatments and identify key knowledge gaps for future work. Objective: Evaluate intervention research that measured the efficacy of various spray and dip treatments, applied on broiler chicken carcasses during primary processing, as Salmonella prevalence or concentration on broiler carcasses, using systematic review-meta-analysis (SR-MA). Data sources: A comprehensive electronic search was implemented in six databases and verified through a manual search of topic-related reference lists, related reviews or book chapters, and through consultations with selected topic experts. Study inclusion: Control and challenge trials, cohort and before-and-after intervention research published in English that investigated the efficacy of any spray or dip treatments, applied to broiler chicken carcasses or carcass parts during processing, on Salmonella prevalence or concentration measured at the same level under laboratory, pilot plant and commercial conditions. Risk of bias assessment and data extraction: Relevant research was evaluated for methodological soundness and completeness of reporting. The main characteristics of each study included in the review were extracted. Data analysis: Random-effects MA of trisodium phosphate and lactic acid dip treatments (n=12 and n=32 trials with prevalence outcomes, respectively) resulted in homogeneous (p-value=0.469; I2=0.0% and p-value=0.284; I2=11.4%, respectively) summary effect estimates (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.59-2.26 and OR=0.05; 95% CI: 0.03-0.10, respectively). Visual evaluation of MA forest plots indicated overall reduction trends for six spray treatments reporting concentration outcomes: trisodium phosphate (n=48 trials), acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (n=2), cetylpyridinium chloride (n=43), lactic acid (n=24), sodium bisulfate (n=11) and potable water (n=36). Moderate to considerable heterogeneity (p-value <=0.1 and I2>25%) was observed for these treatments. Methodological soundness of included studies was poor and a lack of studies conducted under commercial conditions was observed. Conclusions: Existing research on the efficacy of broiler carcass dips or sprays on Salmonella prevalence or concentration is limited and heterogeneous, precluding the full benefits of robust meta-analyses. Larger randomized controlled trials conducted under commercial conditions are needed.  
  Address Department of Population Medicine, 2509 Stewart Building, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. arajic@uoguelph.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0956-7135 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes AGRICOLA, CAB, CAB Global Health, Current Contents, MEDLINE and Scopus searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 533 Serial 2367  
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Author (up) Buczinski, S.; Tsuka, T.; Tharwat, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The diagnostic criteria used in bovine bacterial endocarditis: a meta-analysis of 460 published cases from 1973 to 2011 Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Veterinary Journal (London, England : 1997) Abbreviated Journal Vet J  
  Volume 193 Issue 2 Pages 349-357  
  Keywords Animals; Auscultation/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/blood/diagnosis/microbiology; Confidence Intervals; Echocardiography/veterinary; Endocarditis, Bacterial/blood/diagnosis/microbiology/veterinary; Female; Sensitivity and Specificity  
  Abstract Bacterial endocarditis (BE) is the most common valvular disease in cattle but diagnosis in the living animal remains a challenge for clinicians. The objective of the study was to report evidence-based veterinary medicine data concerning the clinical presentation and results of ancillary tests of necropsy-confirmed cases of bovine BE. A systematic review and subsequent meta-analysis was performed using Medline and CAB abstracts of every article on bovine BE published in English, Japanese, German and French. The clinical criteria that were specifically assessed for diagnosis of BE were: tachycardia, heart murmur, signs of congestive heart failure, presence of fever, evidence of lameness/polyarthritis, one or more positive blood cultures and positive echocardiograms for BE. A total of 34 studies (460 cases of BE) satisfied the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained using a random-effect meta-analysis for studies reporting five or more cases. The Se (95% CI) were 86.9% (39.1-98.6%) for positive haemoculture, 84.3% (60.4-95.0%) for echocardiography, 79.7% (70.1-86.8%) for the presence of tachycardia, 60.3% (51.8-68.3%) for the presence of a murmur, 45.7% (32.5-59.5%) for the presence of fever, 43.5% (25.6-63.3%) for the presence of lameness/polyarthritis, and 37.3% (21.6-57.0%) for the presence of clinical signs of heart failure. The Sp (95% CI) was 95.3% (93.3-96.8%) for lameness, 72.6% (45.8-89.2%) for the presence of a murmur, 67.0% (55.5-76.7%) for the presence of fever, and 27.1% (14.3-45.2%) for the presence of tachycardia. This meta-analysis confirmed that the diagnosis of BE is a difficult process. Echocardiography seems to be a sensitive diagnostic tool despite the absence of any consensus on the ultrasonographic definition of the disease. However, from these results, it was impossible to determine whether multiple positive findings or clinical tests increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of bovine BE.  
  Address Clinique ambulatoire bovine, Departement des sciences cliniques, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, St-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada. s.buczinski@umontreal.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/06/22  
  ISSN 1532-2971 (Electronic) 1090-0233 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 833 Serial 2368  
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Author (up) Bui, C.; Bethmont, A.; Chughtai, A.A.; Gardner, L.; Sarkar, S.; Hassan, S.; Seale, H.; MacIntyre, C.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review of the comparative epidemiology of avian and human influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 – Lessons and unanswered questions Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Abbreviated Journal Transbound Emerg Dis  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Chickens; Poultry; Wild birds  
  Abstract The aim of this work was to explore the comparative epidemiology of influenza viruses, H5N1 and H7N9, in both bird and human populations. Specifically, the article examines similarities and differences between the two viruses in their genetic characteristics, distribution patterns in human and bird populations and postulated mechanisms of global spread. In summary, H5N1 is pathogenic in birds, while H7N9 is not. Yet both have caused sporadic human cases, without evidence of sustained, human-to-human spread. The number of H7N9 human cases in the first year following its emergence far exceeded that of H5N1 over the same time frame. Despite the higher incidence of H7N9, the spatial distribution of H5N1 within a comparable time frame is considerably greater than that of H7N9, both within China and globally. The pattern of spread of H5N1 in humans and birds around the world is consistent with spread through wild bird migration and poultry trade activities. In contrast, human cases of H7N9 and isolations of H7N9 in birds and the environment have largely occurred in a number of contiguous provinces in south-eastern China. Although rates of contact with birds appear to be similar in H5N1 and H7N9 cases, there is a predominance of incidental contact reported for H7N9 as opposed to close, high-risk contact for H5N1. Despite the high number of human cases of H7N9 and the assumed transmission being from birds, the corresponding level of H7N9 virus in birds in surveillance studies has been low, particularly in poultry farms. H7N9 viruses are also diversifying at a much greater rate than H5N1 viruses. Analyses of certain H7N9 strains demonstrate similarities with engineered transmissible H5N1 viruses which make it more adaptable to the human respiratory tract. These differences in the human and bird epidemiology of H5N1 and H7N9 raise unanswered questions as to how H7N9 has spread, which should be investigated further.  
  Address School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/02/04  
  ISSN 1865-1682 (Electronic) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Google Scholar and BIOSIS searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1319 Serial 2800  
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Author (up) Bui, C.; Rahman, B.; Heywood, A.E.; MacIntyre, C.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 Infection in Birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Abbreviated Journal Transbound Emerg Dis  
  Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 967-977  
  Keywords Birds; Avian; Influenza A Virus; Prevalence  
  Abstract Despite a much higher rate of human influenza A (H7N9) infection compared to influenza A (H5N1), and the assumption that birds are the source of human infection, detection rates of H7N9 in birds are lower than those of H5N1. This raises a question about the role of birds in the spread and transmission of H7N9 to humans. We conducted a meta-analysis of overall prevalence of H5N1 and H7N9 in different bird populations (domestic poultry, wild birds) and different environments (live bird markets, commercial poultry farms, wild habitats). The electronic database, Scopus, was searched for published papers, and Google was searched for country surveillance reports. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce pooled estimates of the prevalence of H5N1 and H7N9 for various subcategories. A random effects logistic regression model was used to compare prevalence rates between H5N1 and H7N9. Both viruses have low prevalence across all bird populations. Significant differences in prevalence rates were observed in domestic birds, farm settings, for pathogen and antibody testing, and during routine surveillance. Random effects logistic regression analyses show that among domestic birds, the prevalence of H5N1 is 47.48 (95% CI: 17.15-133.13, P < 0.001) times higher than H7N9. In routine surveillance (where surveillance was not conducted in response to human infections or bird outbreaks), the prevalence of H5N1 is still higher than H7N9 with an OR of 43.02 (95% CI: 16.60-111.53, P < 0.001). H7N9 in humans has occurred at a rate approximately four times higher than H5N1, and for both infections, birds are postulated to be the source. Much lower rates of H7N9 in birds compared to H5N1 raise doubts about birds as the sole source of high rates of human H7N9 infection. Other sources of transmission of H7N9 need to be considered and explored.  
  Address School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/01/12  
  ISSN 1865-1682 (Electronic) 1865-1674 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Medline and Embase searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1462 Serial 2918  
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Author (up) Burns, M.J.; O'Connor, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of methodological quality and sources of variation in the magnitude of vaccine efficacy: a systematic review of studies from 1960 to 2005 reporting immunization with Moraxella bovis vaccines in young cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Vaccine Abbreviated Journal Vaccine  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 144-152  
  Keywords Animals; Bacterial Vaccines/immunology; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/immunology/prevention & control; Drug Evaluation/methods; Moraxella (Moraxella) bovis/immunology; Moraxellaceae Infections/immunology/prevention & control/veterinary  
  Abstract A review was conducted of all identified literature evaluating Moraxella bovis vaccines efficacy in preventing pinkeye in beef calves. From 292 publications identified by the search, data on 123 unique vaccine-to-control comparisons were extracted from 38 studies published in English from 1960 to 2005. Descriptive analysis was performed and an analysis of sources of variation evaluated. Use of methods to control bias such as randomization and blinding were associated with decreased vaccine efficacy. Only 15 trials reported using randomization and blinding. The authors conclude that when designing and reporting veterinary vaccination studies, researchers must include methodological quality information necessary to judge the evidence produced from the study.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Diagnostics and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 1715 Veterinary Medicine Building, Ames, IA 50011, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2007/12/07  
  ISSN 0264-410X (Print) 0264-410X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes AGRICOLA, AGRIS, Biological & Agricultural Index, Biological Abstracts, Biosis Previews, CAB Abstracts, Current Contents, Digital Dissertations, Ingenta, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 631 Serial 2369  
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Author (up) Burow, E.; Simoneit, C.; Tenhagen, B.A.; Kasbohrer, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Oral antimicrobials increase antimicrobial resistance in porcine E. coli – A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 113 Issue 4 Pages 364-75  
  Keywords Administration, Oral; Animals; Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects; Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial; Escherichia coli/drug effects; Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology; Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary; Swine; Swine Diseases/microbiology; Anti-Infective Agents  
  Abstract Administration of antimicrobials to livestock increases the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in commensal bacteria. Antimicrobials in pig production are usually administered per pen via feed which implies treatment of sick alongside with healthy animals. The objective of this systematic literature review was to investigate the effect of orally administered antimicrobials on AMR in Escherichia coli of swine. Studies published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved from the international online databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus and the national electronic literature data base of Deutsches Institut fur Medizinische Dokumentation und Information. The studies were assessed using the eligibility criteria English or German language, access to full paper version, defined treatment and control group (initial value or non-treatment) as well as administration and resistance testing of the same antimicrobial class. In the qualitative synthesis, only studies were included presenting the summary measures odds ratio or prevalence of resistance, the category of the applied antimicrobial and the dosage. An effect of the antimicrobial on AMR in E. coli was evaluated as an “increase”, “no effect” or “decrease” if the odds or alternatively the prevalence ratio were >1.0, 1.0 or <1.0, respectively. Eleven studies, describing 36 different trials, fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were finally assessed. An increase of AMR in E. coli was found in 10 out of 11 trials comparing AMR after with AMR prior to oral treatment and in 22 of the 25 trials comparing orally treated with untreated groups. Effects expressed as odds or prevalence ratios were highest for the use of aminoglycosides, quinolones and tetracycline. There was no clear association between the reported dosage and AMR towards tetracycline. Information on antimicrobial substance and dosage was missing in 4 and 5 of the 11 finally selected studies. The 36 identified trials were inhomogenous in usage and provision of information on sample size. Oral administration of antimicrobials increases the risk of AMR in E. coli from swine. There is however a lack of studies on the impact of dosage and longitudinal effects of treatment. The published studies have a number of issues concerning their scientific quality. More high quality research is needed to better address and quantifiy the effect of orally administered antimicrobials on AMR in swine.  
  Address Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Department of Biological Safety, Diedersdorfer Weg 1, 12277 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: Elke.Burow@bfr.bund.de.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/01/18  
  ISSN 1873-1716 (Electronic) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, Deutsches Institut fur Medizinische Dokumentation und Information database and ProQuest LLC searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1192 Serial 2686  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bush, E.R.; Baker, S.E.; Macdonald, D.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Global trade in exotic pets 2006-2012 Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Conservation Biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Biol  
  Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 663-676  
  Keywords Wild animals; Wild birds; Exotic animals; Animal welfare  
  Abstract International trade in exotic pets is an important and increasing driver of biodiversity loss and often compromises the standards required for good animal welfare. We systematically reviewed the scientific and gray literature and used the United Nations Environment Programme – World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) trade database to establish temporal and geographical trade patterns of live exotic birds, mammals, and reptiles and to describe trends in research, taxonomic representation, and level of threat and legal protection of species traded. Birds were the most species-rich and abundant class reported in trade; reptiles were second most abundant but unusually the most studied in this context; and mammals were least abundant in trade. Mammalian and reptilian species traded as pets were more likely to be threatened than expected by random. There have been a substantial number of Appendix I listed captive-bred mammals and birds and wild-caught birds and reptiles reported in trade to CITES. We identified the Middle East's emerging role as a driver of demand for exotic pets of all taxa alongside the well-established and increasing role of South America and Southeast Asia in the market. Europe, North America, and the Middle East featured most heavily in trade reports to CITES, whereas trade involving South America and Southeast Asia were given most emphasis in the literature. For effective monitoring of and appropriate response to the international exotic pet trade, it is imperative that the reliability and detail of CITES trade reports improve and that scientific research be directed toward those taxa and locations that are most vulnerable.  
  Address Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Recanati-Kaplan Centre, Tubney House, Tubney, Oxon OX13 5QL, United Kingdom; Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, FK9 4LA, United Kingdom. e.r.bush@stir.ac.uk.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/03/26  
  ISSN 1523-1739 (Electronic) 0888-8892 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?), Scopus, Zoological Record, CAB Abstracts and Cambridge Scientific Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1238 Serial 2727  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Cai, C.; Li, H.; Edwards, J.; Hawkins, C.; Robertson, I.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meta-analysis on the efficacy of routine vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in China Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 115 Issue 3-4 Pages 94-100  
  Keywords Animals; China; Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control; Foot-and-Mouth Disease/virology; Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/physiology; Livestock; Vaccination/veterinary; Cattle; Sheep; Goats; Pigs  
  Abstract Foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been reported in China for many years. Recently, due to the rapid economic development, the price of meat and its demand have grown quickly. This trend has resulted in an increase in the number of livestock moving from south-east Asian countries into China. Foot and mouth disease is becoming one of the most important trans-boundary animal diseases affecting the livelihood of livestock owners in China. To contribute to the long term goal to control and eradicate FMD from China, the Chinese government has adopted a series of control measures which includes compulsory routine vaccination against the disease. In this paper, the surveillance results of the routine vaccination programme were systemically reviewed. The results from 28 published papers were combined and analysed through a meta-analysis approach. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the vaccination programme has been very successful in China with more than 70% of animals protected against serotypes Asia-1 and O.  
  Address College of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Western Australia 6150, Australia. Electronic address: caichang116@hotmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/04/29  
  ISSN 1873-1716 (Electronic) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Wan Fang Data, Wei Pu Information, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1219 Serial 2709  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Caja, G.; Roca, X.; Salama, A.K.K. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title [A meta-analysis for comparing dry matter intake prediction models in dairy goats] Type Book Chapter
  Year 2011 Publication XIV Jornadas sobre Produccion Animal, Zaragoza, Espana, 17 y 18 de mayo de 2011 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 216-218  
  Keywords Dairy Animals [LL110]; Animal Nutrition (Production Responses) [LL520]; Mathematics and Statistics [ZZ100]; body weight; dairy performance; dry matter; feed intake; meta-analysis; milk fat; milk yield; milk yielding animals; models; performance traits; goats; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract Currently available models for dairy goats (INRA, 2007; NRC, 2007; Avondo et al., 2008) estimated dry matter intake (DMI) from body weight (BW) and milk yield (MY). A model comparison for similar BW showed marked differences in predicted DMI depending on MY (0 to 6 L/d). A meta-analysis of dairy goat intake data published in 125 papers indexed in PubMed and Science Direct was done, resulting in a total of 219 values normally distributed. Milk yield was standardized to 3.5% milk fat (MY3.5%). Goat performances ranged from 29.0 to 85.5 kg BW, 0.4 to 6.2 L/d MY3.5% and 0.8 to 3.5 kg DMI/d. Prediction models were (+or-SEM; P<0.001): DMI (+or-0.099)=1.233+0.370 x MY3.5%; R2=0.69 DMI (+or-0.075)=0.553+0.277 x MY3.5%+0.018 x BW; R2=0.76 The meta-analysis models showed the lowest error of prediction (-0.030 kg DM/d), being lower than those of the Avondo et al. (-0.092 kg DM/d) and INRA (-0.101 kg DM/d) models. On the contrary, the NRC overestimated intake (+0.185 kg DM/d).  
  Address Grup de Recerca en Remugants (G2R), Departament de Ciencia Animal i dels Aliments, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain. gerardo.caja@uab.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Asociacion Interprofesional para el Desarrollo Agrario Place of Publication Zaragoza Editor  
  Language Spanish Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title XIV Jornadas sobre Produccion Animal, Zaragoza, Espana, 17 y 18 de mayo de 2011  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-84-615-0062-8 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Science Direct searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 296 Serial 2370  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Carriquiry, M.; Weber, W.J.; Crooker, B.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Administration of bovine somatotropin in early lactation: a meta-analysis of production responses by multiparous Holstein cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 91 Issue 7 Pages 2641-2652  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle/metabolism/physiology; Energy Intake/drug effects/physiology; Energy Metabolism; Female; Growth Hormone/administration & dosage; Lactation/drug effects/physiology; Lipid Metabolism/drug effects/physiology; Milk/chemistry; Milk Proteins/analysis/drug effects; Parity; Postpartum Period; Pregnancy; Time Factors; Weight Loss/drug effects/physiology; Cattle  
  Abstract A meta-analysis was conducted to assess production responses before 90 d in milk (DIM) when bovine somatotropin (bST) administration was initiated between 5 and 35 DIM. The database was developed from 13 studies of multiparous cows that were published between 1985 and 2006 and from an unpublished study that complied with the study selection criteria. The database included results from 842 cows and provided 50 treatment means for the effect of bST on 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) in early lactation. Effects of bST were investigated using mixed model procedures that included fixed (intercept and slope) and random (intercept and slope) effects for independent variables. Yields of milk (38.6 +/- 1.3 kg/d) and FCM (37.6 +/- 1.6 kg/d) by control cows before 90 DIM were increased by 2.6 +/- 0.8 and 3.2 +/- 0.6 kg/d by bST administration. Fat content in milk from bST-treated cows was 0.31 +/- 0.10 percentage units greater than that from control cows (3.46 +/- 0.13%) but milk protein content (2.95 +/- 0.03%) was not altered by bST. Milk fat (1.39 +/- 0.10 kg/d) and protein (1.15 +/- 0.04 kg/d) yields by controls were increased 0.16 +/- 0.03 and 0.07 +/- 0.03 kg/d by bST, respectively. Dry matter intake and body weight loss were not altered by bST before 90 DIM, but duration of negative energy balance was prolonged and overall energy balance during this interval reduced when cows were treated with bST. Results are consistent with the premise that bST-treated cows partition nutrients and energy toward milk synthesis for a longer duration and thus likely need a longer interval to replenish their body reserves than cows not treated with bST. Production responses to bST were not altered when cows consumed typical early-lactation diets supplemented with fat except that supplemental fat tended to decrease the magnitude of the effect of bST on milk fat content and decreased the effect of bST on fat and protein yield. Yield of FCM increased curvilinearly with the amount of bST administered. Results indicate that initiation of bST administration to cows before 35 DIM increased FCM yield but the response was at the low end of that typically observed when bST administration is initiated in wk 9 of lactation.  
  Address Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2008/06/21  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, AGRICOLA and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 632 Serial 2371  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Carta, T.; Alvarez, J.; Perez de la Lastra, J.M.; Gortazar, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Wildlife and paratuberculosis: a review Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Research in Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal Res Vet Sci  
  Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 191-197  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Domestic; Animals, Wild; Disease Reservoirs/veterinary; Paratuberculosis/epidemiology/transmission; Ruminants; World Health; Rabbits; Deer; Cattle  
  Abstract Paratuberculosis (PTB) is an infectious granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) causing significant economic losses in livestock. However, PTB in free-living and captive wildlife has not been as extensively studied as in livestock. We reviewed the existing literature references on MAP to (i) determine the potential impact of MAP infection in wildlife species; (ii) analyze whether wildlife reservoirs are relevant regarding MAP control in domestic ruminants; (iii) assess the importance of MAP as the cause of potential interferences with tuberculosis diagnosis in wildlife. The mean MAP prevalence reported in wildlife was 2.41% (95% confidence interval 1.76-3.06). Although MAP should be considered an important disease in farmed cervids, its impact on free-ranging species is questionable. MAP reservoirs may exist locally but their significance for PTB control in livestock is quite limited. The most critical aspect derived of MAP infection in wildlife is the interference with tuberculosis diagnosis.  
  Address Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC (CSIC – UCLM – JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s.n., 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/12/25  
  ISSN 1532-2661 (Electronic) 0034-5288 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 856 Serial 2372  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ceballos, A.; Sanchez, J.; Stryhn, H.; Montgomery, J.B.; Barkema, H.W.; Wichtel, J.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meta-analysis of the effect of oral selenium supplementation on milk selenium concentration in cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 324-342  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle/physiology; Dietary Supplements; Female; Milk/chemistry; Publication Bias; Regression Analysis; Selenium/administration & dosage/analysis; Cattle  
  Abstract Soils in many regions of the world have a low Se content. Consequently, forages and crops grown on these soils may provide inadequate dietary Se for humans and grazing animals. Selenium supplementation has been used to enhance Se status and milk Se concentration, but results conflict. Milk Se concentration appears to be a useful indicator of animal and herd Se status, and reflects the responsiveness to supplementation. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to summarize all available scientific evidence for the effect of oral Se supplementation on milk Se concentration in cattle. The literature search was based on electronic and nonelectronic databases. Fixed- and random-effects models of meta-analysis were used, and a meta-regression was carried out to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed on 42 studies published between 1977 and 2007. Oral Se supplementation resulted in an average increase in milk Se content of 0.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.117, 0.207) micromol/L, with a significant heterogeneity among studies. Weak publication bias was evident, but it did not change the average effect. The continent where the study was performed, Se source, Se dose, and the interaction between source and dose explained 71% of the between-study variance. On average, American cows supplemented with Se yeast (e.g., 6 mg/h per day) had greater milk Se concentrations (approximately 0.37 micromol/L) 75 d after the beginning of supplementation when compared with those supplemented with inorganic forms of Se. This information provides a basis for tailoring daily animal requirements and for enhancing the Se intake of consumers of dairy products.  
  Address Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3, Canada. aceballos@upei.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2008/12/26  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and WorldCat searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 633 Serial 2373  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Cerqueira, E.S.; Almeida, R.C. de C. url  openurl
  Title [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in foods of animal origin: a systematic review] Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz Abbreviated Journal Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz  
  Volume 72 Issue 4 Pages 288-300  
  Keywords Pesticide and Drug Resistance [HH410]; Meat Produce [QQ030]; Food Contamination, Residues and Toxicology [QQ200]; Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Humans [VV210]; animal products; antibacterial agents; detection; drug resistance; food contamination; food safety; literature reviews; meticillin; microbial contamination; strains; systematic reviews; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; pigs; Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus; Staphylococcaceae; Bacillales; Bacilli; Firmicutes; Bacteria; prokaryotes; Sus scrofa; Sus; Suidae; Suiformes; Artiodactyla; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; bacterium; food contaminants; hogs; MRSA; swine [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of infections in humans and onset of this bacterium in hospitalized individuals has been well documented. However, a report on MRSA colonization and infection of individuals in the community, without prior contact with hospital environment, suggests the occurrence of other sources of contamination, such as the use of drugs in livestock, causing colonization of production animals with MRSA, and resulting in contamination of meat products. This study aimed at compiling and analyzing the scientific publications on the occurrence of MRSA in foods. A systematic review of the literature was performed in Lilacs, Medline and Pubmed databases, and the articles published from 2000 to 2013 were selected. A significant number of studies involving different samples was observed. Wide variations on the MRSA prevalence were found, and also on the methodologies used for the analyses. The MLST strain ST398 is commonly detected in pigs, and it was the most isolated bacterium from samples analyzed in different studies. ST8 and ST5 strains, belonging to human biovar, have also been frequently isolated, suggesting that food handlers have been a source for meat contamination with MRSA.  
  Address Escola de Nutricao, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho no 32, Canela, CEP: 40.110-160, Salvador, BA, Brazil. rogerianut@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Portuguese Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0073-9855 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1247 Serial 2735  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Charalambous, M.; Brodbelt, D.; Volk, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Treatment in canine epilepsy – a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 257  
  Keywords Dogs; Epilepsy; Drug therapy  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used for the management of canine idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Information on their clinical efficacy remains limited. A systematic review was designed to evaluate existing evidence for the effectiveness of AEDs for presumptive canine IE. Electronic searches of PubMed and CAB Direct were carried out without date or language restrictions. Conference proceedings were also searched. Peer-reviewed full-length studies describing objectively the efficacy of AEDs in dogs with IE were included. Studies were allocated in two groups, i.e. blinded randomized clinical trials (bRCTs), non-blinded randomized clinical trials (nbRCTs) and non-randomized clinical trials (NRCTs) (group A) and uncontrolled clinical trials (UCTs) and case series (group B). Individual studies were evaluated based on the quality of evidence (study design, study group sizes, subject enrolment quality and overall risk of bias) and the outcome measures reported (in particular the proportion of dogs with >/=50% reduction in seizure frequency). RESULTS: Twenty-six studies, including two conference proceedings, reporting clinical outcomes of AEDs used for management of IE were identified. Heterogeneity of study designs and outcome measures made meta-analysis inappropriate. Only four bRCTs were identified in group A and were considered to offer higher quality of evidence among the studies. A good level of evidence supported the efficacy of oral phenobarbital and imepitoin and fair level of evidence supported the efficacy of oral potassium bromide and levetiracetam. For the remaining AEDs, favorable results were reported regarding their efficacy, but there was insufficient evidence to support their use due to lack of bRCTs. CONCLUSIONS: Oral phenobarbital and imepitoin in particular, as well as potassium bromide and levetiracetam are likely to be effective for the treatment of IE. However, variations in baseline characteristics of the dogs involved, significant differences between study designs and several potential sources of bias preclude definitive recommendations. There is a need for greater numbers of adequately sized bRCTs evaluating the efficacy of AEDs for IE.  
  Address Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield AL9 7TA, Herts, UK. marioscharalambousdvm@gmail.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/10/24  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1267 Serial 2755  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Charalambous, M.; Shivapour, S.K.; Brodbelt, D.C.; Volk, H.A. doi  openurl
  Title Antiepileptic drugs' tolerability and safety--a systematic review and meta-analysis of adverse effects in dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 79  
  Keywords Dogs; Canines; Epilepsy; Anticonvulsants; Antiepileptic drugs; Adverse effects; Safety; Side effects  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The safety profile of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) is an important consideration for the regulatory bodies, owners and prescribing clinicians. Information on their adverse effects still remains limited. A systematic review including a meta-analytic approach was designed to evaluate existing evidence for the safety profile of AEDs in canine patients. Electronic searches of PubMed, CAB Direct and Google scholar were carried out without date or language restrictions. Conference proceedings were also searched. Peer-reviewed full-length studies reporting adverse effects of AEDs in epileptic and healthy non-epileptic dogs were included. Studies were allocated to three groups based on their design. Individual studies were evaluated based on the quality of evidence (study design, study group sizes, subject enrolment quality and overall risk of bias) and the outcome measures reported (proportion of specific adverse effects for each AED, prevalence and 95% confidence interval of the affected population in each study and comparative odds ratio of adverse effects for AEDs). RESULTS: Ninety studies, including six conference proceedings, reporting clinical outcomes of AEDs' adverse effects were identified. Few studies were designed as blinded randomised controlled clinical trials. Many studies included low canine populations with unclear criteria of subject enrolment and short treatment periods. Direct comparisons suggested that imepitoin and levetiracetam might have a better safety profile than phenobarbital, whilst the latter might have a better safety profile than potassium bromide. However, none of these comparisons showed a statistically significant difference. Comparisons between other AEDs were not possible as a considerable amount of studies lacked power calculations or adequate data to allow further statistical analysis. Individual AED assessments indicated that levetiracetam might be one of the safest AEDs, followed by imepitoin and then phenobarbital and potassium bromide; these findings were all supported by a strong level of evidence. The safety profile in other AEDs was variable, but weak evidence was found to permit firm conclusions or to compare their safety to other AEDs. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review provides objective evaluation of the most commonly used AEDs' adverse effects. Adverse effects usually appeared mild in all AEDs and subsided once doses and/or serum levels were monitored or after the AED was withdrawn. Although phenobarbital might be less safe than imepitoin and levetiracetam, there was insufficient evidence to classify it as an AED with a high risk of major adverse effects. It is important for clinicians to evaluate both AEDs' effectiveness and safety on an individual basis before the selection of the appropriate monotherapy or adjunctive AED therapy.  
  Address Faculty of Brain Sciences, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. marios.charalambous.15@ucl.ac.uk. College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011, USA. Department of Production and Population Health, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Herts, AL9 7TA, UK. Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Herts, AL9 7TA, UK.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/05/22  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, CAB Direct and Google Scholar Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1422 Serial 2881  
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