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Author (up) Bennett, B.C.; Alarcon, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Hunting and hallucinogens: The use psychoactive and other plants to improve the hunting ability of dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Ethnopharmacology Abbreviated Journal J Ethnopharmacol  
  Volume 171 Issue Pages 171-183  
  Keywords Dogs  
  Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cultures throughout the world give plants to their dogs in order to improve hunting success. These practices are best developed in lowland Ecuador and Peru. There is no experimental evidence for the efficacy of these practices nor critical reviews that consider possible pharmacological effects on dogs based on the chemistry of the ethnoverterinary plants. AIM: This review has three specific aims: (1) determine what plants the Ecuadorian Shuar and Quichua give to dogs to improve their hunting abilities, (2) determine what plants other cultures give to dogs for the same purpose, and (3) assess the possible pharmacological basis for the use of these plants, particularly the psychoactive ones. METHODS: We gathered Shuar (Province of Morona-Santiago) and Quichua (Napo and Orellano Provinces) data from our previous publications and field notes. All specimens were vouchered and deposited in QCNE with duplicates sent to NY and MO. Data presented from other cultures derived from published studies on ethnoveterinary medicine. Species names were updated, when necessary, and family assignments follow APG III (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 105-121). Chemical data were found using PubMed and SciFinder. RESULTS: The Shuar and Quichua of Ecuador use at least 22 species for ethnoveterinary purposes, including all but one of their principal hallucinogens. Literature surveys identified 43 species used in other cultures to improve hunting ability. No published studies have examined the pharmacological active of these plant species in dogs. We, thus, combined phytochemical data with the ethnobotanical reports of each plant and then classified each species into a likely pharmacological category: depuratives/deodorant, olfactory sensitizer, ophthalmic, or psychoactive. CONCLUSIONS: The use of psychoactive substances to improve a dogs hunting ability seems counterintuitive, yet its prevalence suggests that it is both adaptive and that it has an underlying pharmacological explanation. We hypothesize that hallucinogenic plants alter perception in hunting dogs by diminishing extraneous signals and by enhancing sensory perception (most likely olfaction) that is directly involved in the detection and capture of game. If this is true, plant substances also might enhance the ability of dogs to detect explosives, drugs, human remains, or other targets for which they are valued.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA. Electronic address: bennett@fiu.edu. Iamoe Centre, Via El Pindo, Coca, Ecuador. Electronic address: rocioalarcon73@gmail.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/06/02  
  ISSN 1872-7573 (Electronic) 0378-8741 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1358 Serial 2829  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Berget, B.; Braastad, B.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita Abbreviated Journal Ann Ist Super Sanita  
  Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 384-390  
  Keywords Animal Assisted Therapy/methods; Animals; Animals, Domestic; Anxiety Disorders/psychology/rehabilitation; Attitude; Depressive Disorder/psychology/rehabilitation; Evidence-Based Medicine; Humans; Mental Disorders/psychology/therapy; Self Concept; Social Support; Cattle; Goats; Farm animals  
  Abstract Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.  
  Address Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, As, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/12/24  
  ISSN 0021-2571 (Print) 0021-2571 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 540 Serial 2358  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bergh, M.S.; Budsberg, S.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review of the literature describing the efficacy of surgical treatments for canine hip dysplasia (1948-2012) Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Veterinary Surgery : VS Abbreviated Journal Vet Surg  
  Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 501-6  
  Keywords Dogs  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the literature reporting outcome of surgical treatments for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and to evaluate whether adequate evidence exists to support a procedure that will allow a consistent return to normal function. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review. ANIMALS: Dogs with naturally occurring CHD. METHODS: An a priori question was defined and a computer-based bibliographic search was performed on PubMed, Medline, CAB Abstracts, and Veterinary Information Network through November 2012. Studies were compared and evaluated with regard to surgical technique, study design, outcome measurements, evidence classification, and evidence quality. Unilateral surgeries with >6 months postoperative follow-up were included. RESULTS: Manuscripts (n = 477) were identified and reviewed; 17 met the inclusion criteria. One study provided level I evidence, 2 provided level II evidence, 3 provided level III evidence, and 11 provided level IV evidence relative to the study question. The most common outcome measurements were orthopedic examination (70.6%), owner interview (70.6%), and visual gait observation (64.7%). Three studies used objective kinetic gait assessment. Two studies with level III evidence (total hip replacement) and 1 study with level IV evidence (juvenile pubic symphysiodesis) documented a consistent return to normal function after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a large number of publications describing clinical outcome after surgical treatments for CHD, few provided strong evidence to allow an adequate assessment of therapeutic efficacy.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, Iowa.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/05/20  
  ISSN 1532-950X (Electronic) 0161-3499 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Medline, CAB Abstracts, and Veterinary Information Network searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1224 Serial 2713  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bergh, M.S.; Sullivan, C.; Ferrell, C.L.; Troy, J.; Budsberg, S.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Systematic review of surgical treatments for cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Anim Hosp Assoc  
  Volume 50 Issue 5 Pages 315-21  
  Keywords Dogs  
  Abstract Surgery for cranial cruciate ligament disease is often recommended; however, it is unclear if one procedure is superior. The aim of this systematic review was to answer the a priori question, “Is there a surgical procedure that will allow a consistent return to normal clinical function in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease and is that procedure superior to others?” A systematic literature search was performed through September 2013. Peer reviewed publication in the English language and 6 mo of postoperative follow-up were required. In total, 444 manuscripts were identified and reviewed, and 34 met the inclusion criteria. Two studies provided level 1, 6 provided level 2, 6 provided level 3, and 20 provided level 4 evidence relative to the study question. The most common surgical procedures included tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO, n = 14), lateral extracapsular suture (n = 13), tibial tuberosity advancement (n = 6). The strength of the evaluated evidence most strongly supports the ability of the TPLO in the ability to return dogs to normal function. It also provided strong support that functional recovery in the intermediate postoperative time period was superior following TPLO compared with lateral extracapsular suture. There was insufficient data to adequately evaluate other surgical procedures.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA (M.B., C.S., J.T.); Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, The University Of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA (C.F., S.B.). msbergh@iastate.edu. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA (M.B., C.S., J.T.); Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, The University Of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA (C.F., S.B.).  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/07/17  
  ISSN 1547-3317 (Electronic) 0587-2871 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, MEDLINE, Google, Google Scholar, CAB Abstracts and Veterinary Information Network (VIN) searched, plus selected journals Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1242 Serial 2731  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bermingham, E.N.; Thomas, D.G.; Cave, N.J.; Morris, P.J.; Butterwick, R.F.; German, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PloS One Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 9 Issue 10 Pages e109681  
  Keywords Dogs  
  Abstract A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (+/- standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8+/-55.3 kcal.kgBW-0.75.day-1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW-0.93.day-1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.  
  Address Food Nutrition & Health Team, Food & Bio-based Products, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Centre of Feline Nutrition, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand; Institute of Veterinary Animal Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Institute of Veterinary Animal Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. WALTHAM Centre of Pet Nutrition, Mars Petcare, Waltham on the Wolds, Leicestershire, United Kingdom. Department of Obesity and Endocrinology, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/10/15  
  ISSN 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE, BIOSIS, FSTA, CAB Abstracts, SCOPUS and PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1261 Serial 2749  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Berry, A.; Borgi, M.; Francia, N.; Alleva, E.; Cirulli, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Use of assistance and therapy dogs for children with autism spectrum disorders: a critical review of the current evidence Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal J Altern Complement Med  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 73-80  
  Keywords Animal Assisted Therapy; Animals; Child; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/therapy; Dogs; Humans; Language; Social Behavior  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social reciprocity and communication, and by unusually restricted, repetitive behaviors. Intervention strategies based on the exploitation of the emotional aspects of human-dog relationships hold the potential to overcome the difficulty of subjects with ASD to relate and interact effectively with others, targeting core symptoms of this disorder. METHODS: This review summarizes the results of six published studies on the effects of brief interactions with dogs and the effects of introducing dogs in families with a child diagnosed with ASD, with an emphasis on social behaviors and language use. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects observed are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Although the studies described here are encouraging, further research with better designs and using larger samples is needed to strengthen translation of such interventions to the clinic. In addition, potential applications of analyzing child-dog interactions are highlighted to screen for early signs of the disorder.  
  Address Section of Behavioral Neurosciences, Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/09/18  
  ISSN 1557-7708 (Electronic) 1075-5535 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and ERIC searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1083 Serial 2359  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bertin, F.R.; Baseler, L.J.; Wilson, C.R.; Kritchevsky, J.E.; Taylor, S.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Arsenic toxicosis in cattle: meta-analysis of 156 cases Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Vet Intern Med  
  Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 977-981  
  Keywords Animals; Arsenic Poisoning/pathology; Arsenic Poisoning/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/chemically induced  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Arsenic toxicosis is uncommon in cattle and successful treatment is rarely reported. OBJECTIVES: This analysis reviews all cases of acute arsenic toxicosis in cattle reported in the literature and describes cases from Purdue University that had a favorable outcome. Clinical presentation of the disease, treatments, and variables associated with survival are described. ANIMALS: One hundred and fifty-six cattle with arsenic toxicosis from 16 outbreaks. METHODS: Meta-analysis. RESULTS: The most common clinical signs were sudden death (68%), diarrhea (33%), ataxia (29%), dehydration (22%), and respiratory distress (4%). The most common clinicopathologic abnormalities included azotemia (100%), hematuria (100%), increased liver enzyme activity (86%), and increased hematocrit (60%). One percent of cattle survived and the survival time for nonsurvivors ranged from 20 hours to 21 days. None of the clinical signs or clinicopathologic findings was associated with survival. Treatment was attempted in 24% of cases and was not associated with survival (P = .055), but administration of an antidote and administration of fluids were associated with better outcome (P = .036 and P = .009, respectively). In the animals presented to Purdue University, treatment with IV fluids and sodium thiosulfate resulted in decreased blood arsenic concentrations in all animals (P = .009) and a survival rate of 50%. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Although acute arsenic toxicosis has a poor prognosis, survival is possible if aggressive fluid therapy and antidotes are administered.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2013/06/14  
  ISSN 1939-1676 (Electronic) 0891-6640 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1115 Serial 2360  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Besson, A.A.; Lagisz, M.; Senior, A.M.; Hector, K.L.; Nakagawa, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of maternal diet on offspring coping styles in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Mice; Rats; Nutrition; Reproduction  
  Abstract Maternal nutrition can have long-term effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviours. However, it is unclear whether mothers 'program' offspring behavioural coping strategy (proactive/reactive) according to the predicted nutritional quality of their future environment. We conducted a systematic review on this topic and meta-analytically synthesized relevant experimental data on mice and rats (46 studies). We included data from experiments where dams were subjected to caloric restriction, protein restriction or overfeeding around gestation and subsequently measured offspring activity, exploration, or anxiety. Overall, little evidence existed for effects of maternal nutrition on the three investigated behavioural traits. The high heterogeneity observed in the data set suggests that maternal programming may sometimes occur. However, because offspring had access to a balanced diet before testing, behaviours may have been reprogrammed. Our results may indicate that reprogrammed behaviours could ameliorate negative effects associated with sub-optimal nutrition in early life. Further, our systematic review revealed clear knowledge gaps and fruitful future research avenues.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Evolution & Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Biological Science Building, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, New South Wales, Australia. Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Johns Hopkins Drive, Sydney 2009, New South Wales, Australia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/07/17  
  ISSN 1469-185X (Electronic) 0006-3231 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1360 Serial 2831  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bettauer, R.H. url  openurl
  Title Systematic review of chimpanzee use in monoclonal antibody research and drug development: 1981-2010 Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Altex Abbreviated Journal Altex  
  Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 103-116  
  Keywords Animal Testing Alternatives; Animal Welfare; Animals; Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology; Pan troglodytes; Research Design; Chimpanzees  
  Abstract This survey examines the extent to which live chimpanzees have been used in monoclonal antibody (mAb) research and the drug approval process. The survey covers 193 scientific articles published during the years 1981-2010, as well as preclinical studies leading to the approval of mAb drugs by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States. The frequency of the articles has decreased by more than two- thirds from their highs in the late 1980's, and the aggregate number of chimpanzees used in these studies has decreased by more than 90%. The experimental protocols ranged from single or multiple blood draws to extraction of body fluids and tissue samples, and to multiple, repeated organ biopsies. Many studies involved infecting the chimpanzee(s) with pathogenic organisms and immunization and infusion protocols. Addressing the health history and status of the chimpanzees was an exception rather than the rule, and anesthesia and analgesia were mentioned only in a small minority of the surveyed articles. In the past two decades, the FDA has approved 32 mAb drugs, but only three of those drugs could be determined to involve the chimpanzee in the preclinical stage. Two of those three drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to their severe adverse effects in human patients. Available alternatives, together with ethical and economic reasons, suggest that the use of the chimpanzee in this manner may not be necessary or appropriate.  
  Address Bettauer BioMed Research, McLean, VA, USA. raija.bettauer@verizon.net  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/06/01  
  ISSN 1868-596X (Print) 1868-596X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 435 Serial 2361  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bettley, C.D.; Cardwell, J.M.; Collins, L.M.; Asher, L. url  openurl
  Title A review of scientific literature on inherited disorders in domestic horse breeds Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Animal Welfare Abbreviated Journal Anim Welf  
  Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages 59-64  
  Keywords Animal Welfare [LL810]; Information and Documentation [CC300]; Animal Genetics and Breeding [LL240]; Non-communicable Diseases and Injuries of Animals [LL860]; animal welfare; breeds; databases; hereditary diseases; horse breeds; inheritance; quality of life; research; reviews; standardization; terminology; animals; Equus; horses; eukaryotes; Equidae; Perissodactyla; ungulates; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animal breed; animal breeds; animal rights; data banks; studies; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract The full extent to which inherited disorders occur in different breeds of domestic horse (Equus caballus) has not been previously been investigated. A systematic search was carried out to review scientific literature on inherited disorders in domestic horse breeds and examine patterns in potentially inherited disorders. A two-part search was conducted: (i) electronic bibliographic databases for published studies; and (ii) existing online databases of inherited disorders in animals. A total of 230 papers were identified, discussing 102 inherited disorders in the horse. Few cases (17) were found in which disorders were reported to have a direct link to a conformational or phenotypic trait. Forty-nine breeds of domestic horse were described as being predisposed to one or more inherited disorders, but such predispositions did not distinguish between genetic or environmental causes. There were few patterns in the number of disorders to which breeds were reportedly predisposed or in the extent to which disorders were researched. The structure and grouping of disorders presented here could assist with standardisation in the terminology used for describing inherited disorders.  
  Address Preston Vets4Pets, 90 Moor Lane, Preston, Lancashire PR1 1JQ, UK. lucy.asher@nottingham.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-7286 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 528 Serial 2362  
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Author (up) Bisinotto, R.S.; Lean, I.J.; Thatcher, W.W.; Santos, J.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 2472-2487  
  Keywords Cattle; Dairy cows  
  Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss (RRK+H = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.00). Service number and presynchronization did not influence the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility. In summary, progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during the timed AI program increased P/AI mostly in cows without CL and reduced the risk of pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol eliminated the benefit of supplemental progesterone on P/AI.  
  Address Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. SBScibus, PO Box 660, Camden 2570, New South Wales, Australia. Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. Electronic address: jepsantos@ufl.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/02/05  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1316 Serial 2797  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bisinotto, R.S.; Lean, I.J.; Thatcher, W.W.; Santos, J.E. doi  openurl
  Title Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 98 Issue 4 Pages 2472-2487  
  Keywords Cattle; Cows; Bovines; Reproduction; Artificial insemination  
  Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss (RRK+H = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.00). Service number and presynchronization did not influence the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility. In summary, progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during the timed AI program increased P/AI mostly in cows without CL and reduced the risk of pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol eliminated the benefit of supplemental progesterone on P/AI.  
  Address Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. SBScibus, PO Box 660, Camden 2570, New South Wales, Australia. Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. Electronic address: jepsantos@ufl.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/02/05  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1403 Serial 2865  
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Author (up) Blajman, J.E.; Frizzo, L.S.; Zbrun, M.V.; Astesana, D.M.; Fusari, M.L.; Soto, L.P.; Rosmini, M.R.; Signorini, M.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Probiotics and broiler growth performance: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication British Poultry Science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci  
  Volume 55 Issue 4 Pages 483-94  
  Keywords Poultry; Chickens  
  Abstract Abstract 1. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of probiotics on the growth performance of broilers. PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google databases were searched in all languages from 1980 to 2012. The studies in the meta-analysis were only selected if they were randomised and controlled experiments using broilers without apparent disease and the results were published in peer-reviewed journals. 2. A total of 48 and 46 studies were included to assess probiotic effects on body weight gain (BWG) and feed efficiency, respectively. Probiotics increased BWG compared to controls (SMD = 0.661, 95% CI 0.499-0.822) and improved FE (SMD = -0.281, 95% CI -0.404 to -0.157) in the pooled standardised mean difference random effect model, considering the source of heterogeneity and publication biases. However, there are evidences of publication bias and heterogeneity, so the results of this meta-analysis should be considered with caution. Applying the Duval and Tweedie s trim and fill methods the adjusted value for BWG was 0.0594 (95% CI -0.122 to 0.242), and the adjusted value for FE did not show any modifications. 3. The meta-analysis showed that application of probiotics via water resulted in greater BGW and FE than administration through the feed. The effect was not related to the use of mono-strain or multi-strain probiotics, although it may depend on the strain used. The number of broilers and the duration of the experiments had an impact on the outcomes. 4. Additional studies should be conducted with the aim to identify the covariates which can explain the differences in the estimated effect sizes.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science , National University of the Litoral , Kreder 2805 (S3080HOF) Esperanza, Province of Santa Fe, Argentina  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/06/13  
  ISSN 1466-1799 (Electronic) 0007-1668 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1235 Serial 2724  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Boerman, I.; Selvarajah, G.T.; Nielen, M.; Kirpensteijn, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Prognostic factors in canine appendicular osteosarcoma – a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 56  
  Keywords Animals; Dog Diseases/diagnosis/pathology; Dogs; Extremities/pathology; Osteosarcoma/diagnosis/pathology/veterinary; Prognosis  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Appendicular osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary canine bone tumor. When treated by amputation or tumor removal alone, median survival times (MST) do not exceed 5 months, with the majority of dogs suffering from metastatic disease. This period can be extended with adequate local intervention and adjuvant chemotherapy, which has become common practice. Several prognostic factors have been reported in many different studies, e.g. age, breed, weight, sex, neuter status, location of tumor, serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), infection, percentage of bone length affected, histological grade or histological subtype of tumor. Most of these factors are, however, only reported as confounding factors in larger studies. Insight in truly significant prognostic factors at time of diagnosis may contribute to tailoring adjuvant therapy for individual dogs suffering from osteosarcoma. The objective of this study was to systematically review the prognostic factors that are described for canine appendicular osteosarcoma and validate their scientific importance. RESULTS: A literature review was performed on selected studies and eligible data were extracted. Meta-analyses were done for two of the three selected possible prognostic factors (SALP and location), looking at both survival time (ST) and disease free interval (DFI). The third factor (age) was studied in a qualitative manner. Both elevated SALP level and the (proximal) humerus as location of the primary tumor are significant negative prognostic factors for both ST and DFI in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Increasing age was associated with shorter ST and DFI, however, was not statistically significant because information of this factor was available in only a limited number of papers. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated SALP and proximal humeral location are significant negative prognosticators for canine osteosarcoma.  
  Address Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/05/17  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 838 Serial 2363  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bol, S.; Bunnik, E.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 284  
  Keywords Cats; Herpesvirus; Lysine  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Feline herpesvirus 1 is a highly contagious virus that affects many cats. Virus infection presents with flu-like signs and irritation of ocular and nasal regions. While cats can recover from active infections without medical treatment, examination by a veterinarian is recommended. Lysine supplementation appears to be a popular intervention (recommended by > 90 % of veterinarians in cat hospitals). We investigated the scientific merit of lysine supplementation by systematically reviewing all relevant literature. METHODS: NCBI's PubMed database was used to search for published work on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1, as well as lysine and human herpesvirus 1. Seven studies on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1 (two in vitro studies and 5 studies with cats), and 10 publications on lysine and human herpesvirus 1 (three in vitro studies and 7 clinical trials) were included for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: There is evidence at multiple levels that lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats. Lysine does not have any antiviral properties, but is believed to act by lowering arginine levels. However, lysine does not antagonize arginine in cats, and evidence that low intracellular arginine concentrations would inhibit viral replication is lacking. Furthermore, lowering arginine levels is highly undesirable since cats cannot synthesize this amino acid themselves. Arginine deficiency will result in hyperammonemia, which may be fatal. In vitro studies with feline herpesvirus 1 showed that lysine has no effect on the replication kinetics of the virus. Finally, and most importantly, several clinical studies with cats have shown that lysine is not effective for the prevention or the treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection, and some even reported increased infection frequency and disease severity in cats receiving lysine supplementation. CONCLUSION: We recommend an immediate stop of lysine supplementation because of the complete lack of any scientific evidence for its efficacy.  
  Address Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA. sebastiaan.bol@ucr.edu. Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA. evelien.bunnik@ucr.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/11/18  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1373 Serial 2842  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Botman, J.; Vandeweerd, J.M. url  openurl
  Title [Inhalation anaesthesia for birds: an analytical review] Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Point Veterinaire Abbreviated Journal Point Vet  
  Volume 45 Issue 346(Part 1) Pages 58-63  
  Keywords Pets and Companion Animals [LL070]; Animal Physiology and Biochemistry (Excluding Nutrition) [LL600]; Veterinary Pharmacology and Anaesthesiology [LL882]; anaesthesia; blood gases; blood pressure; cardiovascular system; heart rate; inhaled anaesthetics; isoflurane; literature reviews; respiration; ventilation; birds; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; anesthesia; circulatory system; inhaled anesthetics; sevoflurane [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract Isoflurane and sevoflurane are two gases available for inhalation anaesthesia. The objective of this article is to provide an analytical review of the effects of these anaesthetics on the cardiorespiratory parameters of birds. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database. Eleven clinical trials were selected and evaluated using the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement checklist. The two gases are comparable for most of the parameters. However, sevoflurane allowed a more rapid recovery, a smaller decrease in respiratory rate and caused fewer cardiac arrhythmias. Both gases generally induced a decrease in blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature. They also caused a decrease in heart rate during the anaesthesia, the extent of which appeared to depend on the duration of the intervention and the gas concentration. Changes in respiratory parameters and blood gas values appeared to be related to the ventilation technique used (spontaneous or controlled).  
  Address Universite de Namur (UNamur) Urvi-Narilis (Unite de Recherche Veterinaire Integree, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, 5000 Namur, Belgium.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language French Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0335-4997 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1257 Serial 2745  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bougouin, A.; Appuhamy, J.A.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; France, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of phytase supplementation on phosphorus retention in broilers and layers: A meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Poultry Science Abbreviated Journal Poult Sci  
  Volume 93 Issue 8 Pages 1981-92  
  Keywords 6-Phytase; Animal Feed/analysis; Animals; Calcium, Dietary/metabolism; Chickens/metabolism; Diet/veterinary; Dietary Supplements; Models, Biological; Phosphorus/metabolism; Calcium, Dietary; Phosphorus; 6-Phytase; Chickens; Poultry  
  Abstract Phytase, a widely used feed additive in poultry diets, increases P availability and subsequently reduces inorganic-P supplementation and P-excretion. Phytase supplementation effect on P-retention in poultry has been investigated, but the effect sizes were highly variable. The present study's objective was to conduct several meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the phytase effect on P-retention in broilers and layers. Data from 103 and 26 controlled experiments testing the phytase effect on P-retention were included in 2 separate meta-analyses for broilers and layers, respectively. The mean difference calculated by subtracting the means of P-retention for the control group from the phytase-supplemented group was chosen as an effect size estimate. Between-study variability (heterogeneity) of mean difference was estimated using random-effect models and had a significant effect (P < 0.01) in both broilers and layers. Therefore, random-effect models were extended to mixed-effect models to explain heterogeneity and obtain final phytase effect size estimates. Available dietary and bird variables were included as fixed effects in the mixed-effect models. The final broiler mixed-effect model included phytase dose and Ca-to-total-P ratio (Ca:tP), explaining 15.6% of the heterogeneity. Other variables such as breed might further explain between-study variance. Broilers consuming control diets were associated with 48.4% P-retention. Exogenous phytase supplementation at 1,039 FTU/kg of diet increased P-retention by 8.6 percentage units on average. A unit increase of phytase dose and Ca:tP from their means further increased P-retention. For layers, the final mixed-effect models included dietary Ca, age, and experimental period length. The variables explained 65.9% of the heterogeneity. Layers receiving exogenous phytase at 371 FTU/kg were associated with a 5.02 percentage unit increase in P-retention. A unit increase in dietary Ca from its mean increased P-retention, whereas an increase in the experiment length and layer's age decreased P-retention. Phytase supplementation had a significant positive effect on P-retention in both broilers and layers, but effect sizes across studies were significantly heterogeneous due to differences in Ca contents, experiment length, bird age, and phytase dose.  
  Address Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, PO Box 338, 6700 AH, the Netherlands Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis 95616 ad.bougouin@gmail.com. Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis 95616. Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, PO Box 338, 6700 AH, the Netherlands. Centre for Nutrition Modelling, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/06/07  
  ISSN 0032-5791 (Print) 0032-5791 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Science Direct, CAB Direct (CAB Abstracts?) and Poultry Science journal website searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1237 Serial 2726  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bourne, N.; Laven, R.; Wathes, D.C.; Martinez, T.; McGowan, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis of the effects of Vitamin E supplementation on the incidence of retained foetal membranes in dairy cows Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Theriogenology Abbreviated Journal Theriogenology  
  Volume 67 Issue 3 Pages 494-501  
  Keywords Animals; Antioxidants/administration & dosage/pharmacology; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/epidemiology/pathology/prevention & control; Dairying; Dietary Supplements; Extraembryonic Membranes/pathology; Female; Incidence; Logistic Models; Odds Ratio; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy/pathology/prevention & control/veterinary; Vitamin E/administration & dosage/pharmacology  
  Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to consolidate the results of studies which have evaluated the effects of Vitamin E supplementation during the dry period on the risk of retained foetal membranes (RFM) in the dairy cow. Twenty studies demonstrated a beneficial response to Vitamin E whilst 21 found no benefit and 3 reported an increase in the incidence of RFM in treated cows. The odds ratios (OR) of the available studies exhibited significant heterogeneity, so multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to enable the identification of factors associated with the response to Vitamin E supplementation. Our multivariable analysis included parity and Vitamin E supplementation (control/treated) in the model, because all other factors were co-linear. Results indicated that Vitamin E supplementation led to a reduction in the incidence of RFM. A second multivariable analysis was undertaken on a subset of the data including only supplemented cows to determine the influence of supplementation factors on the risk of RFM. All factors were co-linear with each other, therefore, only type of Vitamin E supplementation was included in this analysis. The regression model demonstrated that administration of the synthetic Vitamin E alpha-tocopheryl acetate was associated with a lower risk of RFM than treatment with natural Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) (P=0.047, OR=0.49), whereas the difference between the synthetic Vitamin E alpha-tocopherol acetate and natural Vitamin E just failed to attain statistical significance (P=0.059, OR=0.53). Overall the analyses indicate that Vitamin E supplementation during the dry period is associated with a reduced risk of RFM, and that the synthetic forms of Vitamin E are more effective than the natural compound.  
  Address Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts AL9 7TA, UK. nbourne@rvc.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2006/09/30  
  ISSN 0093-691X (Print) 0093-691X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, MEDLINE and CAB searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 627 Serial 2364  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bouzid, M.; Halai, K.; Jeffreys, D.; Hunter, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Veterinary Parasitology Abbreviated Journal Vet Parasitol  
  Volume 207 Issue 3-4 Pages 181-202  
  Keywords Dogs; Cats  
  Abstract Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets.  
  Address Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich, UK. Electronic address: m.bouzid@uea.ac.uk.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/01/15  
  ISSN 1873-2550 (Electronic) 0304-4017 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1305 Serial 2789  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Brainard, B.M.; Boller, M.; Fletcher, D.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 5: Monitoring Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001) Abbreviated Journal J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio)  
  Volume 22 Suppl 1 Issue Pages S65-84  
  Keywords Animals; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/veterinary; Cats; Dogs; Evidence-Based Medicine; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Heart Arrest/therapy/veterinary; Humans; Monitoring, Physiologic/veterinary; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Treatment Outcome; Veterinarians/psychology; Veterinary Medicine/standards  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To systematically examine the evidence on patient monitoring before, during, and following veterinary CPR and to identify scientific knowledge gaps. DESIGN: Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature, categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence and quality, and development of consensus on conclusions for application of the concepts to clinical practice. Relevant questions were answered on a worksheet template and reviewed by the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) monitoring domain members, by the RECOVER committee and opened for comments by veterinary professionals for 3 months. SETTING: Academia, referral practice, and general practice. RESULTS: Eighteen worksheets evaluated monitoring practices relevant for diagnosing cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA), monitoring CPR efforts, identifying return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and post-ROSC monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Although veterinary clinical trials are lacking, experimental literature using canine models and human clinical trials provided relevant data. The major conclusions from this analysis of the literature highlight the utility of end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO(2)) monitoring to identify ROSC and possibly to evaluate quality of CPR. In addition, recommendations for ECG analysis during CPR were addressed. Unless the patient is instrumented at the time of CPA, other monitoring devices (eg, Doppler flow probe) are likely not useful for diagnosis of CPA, and the possibility of pulseless electrical activity makes ECG inappropriate as a sole diagnostic tool. Optimal monitoring of the intra- and postcardiac arrest patient remains to be determined in clinical veterinary medicine, and further evaluation of the prognostic and prescriptive utility of EtCO(2) monitoring will provide material for future studies in veterinary CPR.  
  Address Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7371, USA. brainard@uga.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/08/03  
  ISSN 1476-4431 (Electronic) 1476-4431 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Systematic search described in accompanying methodology paper. MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 586 Serial 2365  
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