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Author (up) Appuhamy, J.A.; Strathe, A.B.; Jayasundara, S.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Kebreab, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 96 Issue 8 Pages 5161-5173  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle/metabolism; Female; Male; Methane/antagonists & inhibitors; Methane/biosynthesis; Monensin/pharmacology; Monensin; Methane; Cattle  
  Abstract Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19 +/- 4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6 +/- 3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12 +/- 6 g/d) and beef steers (-14 +/- 6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23 +/- 0.14) and beef steers (-0.33 +/- 0.16). Monensin treatment period length did not significantly modify the monensin effects in dairy cow or beef steer studies. Overall, monensin had stronger antimethanogenic effects in beef steers than dairy cows, but the effects in dairy cows could potentially be improved by dietary composition modifications and increasing the monensin dose.  
  Address Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis 95616. Electronic address: ranga.appuhamy@gmail.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2013/06/19  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and CAB Direct (CAB Abstracts?) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1114 Serial 2336  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Aragon, C.L.; Budsberg, S.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Applications of evidence-based medicine: cranial cruciate ligament injury repair in the dog Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Veterinary Surgery : VS Abbreviated Journal Vet Surg  
  Volume 34 Issue 2 Pages 93-98  
  Keywords Animals; Anterior Cruciate Ligament/injuries/surgery; Dogs/injuries/surgery; Evidence-Based Medicine; Lameness, Animal/surgery; Retrospective Studies; Stifle/injuries; Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods/veterinary; Treatment Outcome; Dogs  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the literature reporting surgical interventions pertaining to canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury using an evidence-based medicine paradigm. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review. METHODS: An on-line bibliographic search through Medline, PubMed, Veterinary Information Network, and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau Abstracts was performed during August 2004. Two hundred and forty resources of information were identified. Studies were compared and evaluated with regard to study design (retrospective, prospective, randomization), surgical technique, short- and long-term follow-up, and evidence classification. RESULTS: Twenty-eight resources qualified to assist with evidence classification. No class I or class II studies were present, 5 studies were categorized as a class III and 23 studies were categorized as a class IV. Seventeen studies were retrospectively designed and 11 studies were prospectively designed. Proposed results ranged from a wide variety of subjective findings including clinical impression, radiographic analysis, synovial fluid analysis, gross pathology, and histopathology. Objective results, although infrequent, included force plate analysis and cadaveric biomechanical testing. CONCLUSIONS: At this time, the application of evidence-based medicine in analyzing the current available evidence suggests that there is not a single surgical procedure that has enough data to recommend that it can consistently return dogs to normal function after CCL injury. The requirement for assessing and categorizing the available evidence becomes increasingly important as more data becomes available and the quality of research improves. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: An evidence-based medicine paradigm did not provide sufficient evidence favoring 1 surgical technique for management of canine CCL injury.  
  Address Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7390, USA. aragon8@msn.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2005/04/30  
  ISSN 0161-3499 (Print) 0161-3499 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE, PubMed, VIN and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 613 Serial 2337  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Aragon, C.L.; Hofmeister, E.H.; Budsberg, S.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Systematic review of clinical trials of treatments for osteoarthritis in dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Vet Med Assoc  
  Volume 230 Issue 4 Pages 514-521  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use; Chondroitin/therapeutic use; Clinical Trials as Topic; Dog Diseases/drug therapy/pathology; Dogs; Evidence-Based Medicine; Glucosamine/therapeutic use; Osteoarthritis/drug therapy/pathology/veterinary; Severity of Illness Index; Thiazines/therapeutic use; Thiazoles/therapeutic use; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify and critically evaluate the quality of evidence of the most commonly used pharmacologic, nutraceutical, and purported slow-acting drugs of osteoarthritis for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs by use of the FDA's evidence-based medicine scoring system. DESIGN: Systematic review. SAMPLE POPULATION: 16 clinical trials. PROCEDURES: A broad bibliographic search was performed prior to May 2006. Inclusion criteria focused on prospective trials evaluating commonly used medical treatment interventions for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs and published in peer-reviewed journals. The analysis consisted of the following: study design rating, quality factor rating, quantity rating, consistency rating, relevance to disease risk reduction rating, and cumulative strength of evidence ranking. RESULTS: 4 trials evaluating meloxicam were rated as type I. Three trials evaluating carprofen were rated as type I, and 2 trials were rated as type III. One trial evaluating each of the following agents was rated as type 1: etodolac; P54FP; polysulfated glycosaminoglycan; and a combination of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and manganese ascorbate. Two trials evaluating pentosan polysulphate and 2 trails evaluating green-lipped mussels were rated as type I. One trial evaluating hyaluronan was rated as type III. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A high level of comfort exists for meloxicam that the claimed relationship is scientifically valid and that its use is clinically efficacious for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs. A moderate level of comfort exists for carprofen; etodolac; pentosan polysulphate; green-lipped mussels; P54FP; polysulfated glycosaminoglycans; and a combination of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and manganese ascorbate. An extremely low level of comfort exists for hyaluronan.  
  Address Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2007/02/17  
  ISSN 0003-1488 (Print) 0003-1488 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, PubMed and VIN searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 614 Serial 2338  
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Author (up) Araujo, R.B.; Faria, D.E. de; Faria Filho, D.E. de; Lima, C.G. de; Trevisan, R.B.; Souza, K.M.R. de; Sakamoto, M.I.; Souza, V.N. de url  openurl
  Title [Response surface models to predict broiler performance and elaborate economic analysis] Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Revista Brasileira de Saude e Producao Animal Abbreviated Journal Rev Bras Saude Prod An, Salvador  
  Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages 770-783  
  Keywords Agricultural Economics [EE110]; Meat Producing Animals [LL120]; Techniques and Methodology [ZZ900]; broiler performance; broilers; economic analysis; feed conversion; liveweight gain; models; poultry; poultry farming; systematic reviews; fowls; Gallus gallus; Gallus; Phasianidae; Galliformes; birds; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; chickens; domesticated birds; liveweight gains; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract The study was carried out to elaborate response surface models through broiler performance data recovered from literature in order to predict performance and develop economic analysis. Three hundred and twenty eight studies published between 2005 and 2009 were retrieved using the systematic review of literature method. Average weight gain and feed intake data were collected from twelve studies that fulfilled the preestablished inclusion criteria, and response surface models were adjusted with metabolizable energy, environmental temperature, and slaughter age as independent variables. The models for weight gain (R2=0.88) and feed conversion (R2=0.87) were accurate, precise, and not biased. There was no interaction between metabolizable energy and environmental temperature on weight gain and feed intake. The independent variables age and temperature showed interaction for weight gain and feed conversion, whereas the interaction between age and metabolizable energy was detected only for weight gain. It was possible to elaborate economic analysis to determine maximum profit, as a function of the variables included in the model, in different market situations determined by changes in broiler and feed prices. Response surface models are effective to predict broiler chickens performance and allow the development of economic analysis to optimize profitability according to market prices.  
  Address Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Departamento de Zootecnia, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo, Brazil. raquel_bighetti@yahoo.com.br  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Portuguese Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1519-9940 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Biological Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE and SciELO searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 288 Serial 2339  
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Author (up) Arena, M.; Sgolastra, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis comparing the sensitivity of bees to pesticides Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Ecotoxicology (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Ecotoxicology  
  Volume 23 Issue 3 Pages 324-34  
  Keywords Bees; Honey bees  
  Abstract The honey bee Apis mellifera, the test species used in the current environmental risk assessment procedure, is generally considered as extremely sensitive to pesticides when compared to other bee species, although a quantitative approach for comparing the difference in sensitivity among bees has not yet been reported. A systematic review of the relevant literature on the topic followed by a meta-analysis has been performed. Both the contact and oral acute LD50 and the chronic LC50 reported in laboratory studies for as many substances as possible have been extracted from the papers in order to compare the sensitivity to pesticides of honey bees and other bee species (Apiformes). The sensitivity ratio R between the endpoint for the species a (A. mellifera) and the species s (bees other than A. mellifera) was calculated for a total of 150 case studies including 19 bee species. A ratio higher than 1 indicated that the species s was more sensitive to pesticides than honey bees. The meta-analysis showed a high variability of sensitivity among bee species (R from 0.001 to 2085.7), however, in approximately 95 % of the cases the sensitivity ratio was below 10. The effect of pesticides in domestic and wild bees is dependent on the intrinsic sensitivity of single bee species as well as their specific life cycle, nesting activity and foraging behaviour. Current data indicates a need for more comparative information between honey bees and non-Apis bees as well as separate pesticide risk assessment procedures for non-Apis bees.  
  Address Pesticides Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), via Carlo Magno 1/A, 43126, Parma, Italy.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/01/18  
  ISSN 1573-3017 (Electronic) 0963-9292 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, CAB Abstracts, FSTA, MEDLINE 1950-2013 and Journal Citation Reports searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1193 Serial 2687  
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Author (up) Ariza, J.M.; Relun, A.; Bareille, N.; Oberle, K.; Guatteo, R. doi  openurl
  Title Effectiveness of collective treatments in the prevention and treatment of bovine digital dermatitis lesions: A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Cows; Cattle; Bovine digital dermatitis; Dairy Cow; Collective Treatment  
  Abstract The collective treatment (CT) of an affected herd is commonly advised to control bovine digital dermatitis (DD). Several CT are commercialized, frequently without major evidence supporting their effectiveness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the published evidence that supports CT in the treatment and prevention of DD lesions in dairy herds. Across the evidence, the main limitations in the studies design were identified and the possible sources of inconsistency were investigated. An extensive literature search of publications through electronic databases and gray literature was conducted between July 2015 and January 2016. Studies that did not include an untreated or placebo control group were excluded from the review. The literature search and screening process identified 13 publications with 24 treatment trial comparisons and 18 prevention trial comparisons. The published evidence included studies mostly considered to have a low or unclear risk of bias. Descriptive analyses were performed according to the prevention and treatment outcomes, and case and success definitions were identified for each study and summarized in odds ratios (OR). Pairwise meta-analyses were conducted according to the prevention and treatment outcomes, comparing directly the intervention used in each study, and ignoring any other differences in the intervention characteristics. The results of the meta-analyses indicated a low degree of heterogeneity across the evidence for the prevention outcome [I2 = 0%, 95% CI: 0 to 37.2%, 95% prediction interval (PI): 0.72 to 1.74)] and a moderate degree for the treatment outcome (I2 = 25.3%, 95% CI: 0 to 63%, 95% PI: 0.39 to 3.73). Similarly, appraisal of the graphical L'Abbe plot suggested a considerable degree of heterogeneity across the evidence for the treatment outcome. For both outcomes, the frequent small sample sizes of the trials indicate imprecision across the included studies. Additionally, for the treatment and prevention outcomes, an asymmetric funnel plot suggested possible publication bias. The overall quality of the evidence, for both outcomes (prevention and treatment), was therefore considered to be low, indicating that the true effect of CT may be substantially different from that estimated across the included studies. Consequently, this review and meta-analysis does not support an association between the CT considered in the review and a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of DD lesions. The effectiveness of CT therefore remains uncertain, and the epidemiological circumstances in which it can be useful must be investigated. These findings highlight the importance of developing high quality, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of CT for DD control.  
  Address BIOEPAR, INRA, Oniris, La Chantrerie, 44307 Nantes, France; Qalian, Neovia, Segre 49500, France. Electronic address: juan-manuel.ariza@oniris-nantes.fr. BIOEPAR, INRA, Oniris, La Chantrerie, 44307 Nantes, France. Qalian, Neovia, Segre 49500, France.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/07/03  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, CAB, and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1429 Serial 2888  
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Author (up) Arnott, G.; Roberts, D.; Rooke, J.A.; Turner, S.P.; Lawrence, A.B.; Rutherford, K.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Board invited review: The importance of the gestation period for welfare of calves: maternal stressors and difficult births Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 90 Issue 13 Pages 5021-5034  
  Keywords Animal Welfare; Animals; Animals, Newborn/physiology; Cattle/physiology; Female; Male; Parturition; Pregnancy; Stress, Physiological; Cattle  
  Abstract The prenatal period is of critical importance in defining how individuals respond to their environment throughout life. Stress experienced by pregnant females has been shown to have detrimental effects on offspring biology in humans and a variety of other species. It also is becoming increasingly apparent that prenatal events can have important consequences for the behavior, health, and productivity of offspring in farmed species. Pregnant cattle may experience many potentially important stressors, for instance, relating to their social environment, housing system and physical environment, interactions with humans and husbandry procedures, and their state of health. We examined the available literature to provide a review of the implications of prenatal stress for offspring welfare in cattle. The long-term effects of dystocia on cattle offspring also are reviewed. To ensure a transparent and repeatable selection process, a systematic review approach was adopted. The research literature clearly demonstrates that prenatal stress and difficult births in beef and dairy cattle both have implications for offspring welfare and performance. Common husbandry practices, such as transport, were shown to influence offspring biology and the importance of environmental variables, including thermal stress and drought, also were highlighted. Maternal disease during pregnancy was shown to negatively impact offspring welfare. Moreover, dystocia-affected calves suffer increased mortality and morbidity, decreased transfer of passive immunity, and important physiological and behavioral changes. This review also identified considerable gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the effects of prenatal stress in cattle.  
  Address Animal Behaviour and Welfare, Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Research Group, SRUC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. gareth.arnott@sruc.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/09/07  
  ISSN 1525-3163 (Electronic) 0021-8812 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, MEDLINE and BIOSIS Previews searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1131 Serial 2340  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Arrighi, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The urothelium: anatomy, review of the literature, perspectives for veterinary medicine Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft Abbreviated Journal Ann Anat  
  Volume 198 Issue Pages 73-82  
  Keywords Cattle; Sheep; Pigs; Cat; Dog; Rodents; Buffaloes  
  Abstract Over time, much knowledge has been accumulated about the active role of the urothelium, principally in rodents and human. Far from being a mere passive barrier, this specialized epithelium can alter the ion and protein composition of the urine, is able to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli such as pressure, and react to mechanical stimuli by epithelial cell communication with the nervous system. Most of the specialized functions of the urothelium are linked to a number of morpho-physiologic properties exhibited by the superficial umbrella cells, including specialized membrane lipids, asymmetric unit membrane particles and a plasmalemma with stiff plaques which function as a barrier to most substances found in urine, thus protecting the underlying tissues. Moreover, the entire mucosa lining the low urinary tract, composed of urothelium and sub-urothelium, forms a functional transduction unit, able to respond to eso- and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli in a manner assuring an adequate functional response. This review will summarize the available information on each area of inquiry from a morpho-functional point of view. Possible considerations pertaining to species of veterinary interest are reviewed as well. The review was prepared consulting the electronic databases PubMed and Cab Abstracts and retrieving all pertinent reports and the relative reference lists, in order to identify any potential additional studies that could be included. Full-length research articles and thematic reviews were considered. Information on the urothelium of some domestic animal species was also included.  
  Address Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Laboratory of Anatomy and Confocal Microscopy, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy. Electronic address: silvana.arrighi@unimi.it.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/12/24  
  ISSN 1618-0402 (Electronic) 0940-9602 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Cab Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1343 Serial 2819  
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Author (up) Artemiou, E.; Adams, C.L.; Toews, L.; Violato, C.; Coe, J.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Informing web-based communication curricula in veterinary education: A systematic review of web-based methods used for teaching and assessing clinical communication in medical education Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Veterinary Medical Education Abbreviated Journal J Vet Med Educ  
  Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 44-54  
  Keywords Clinical Competence; Communication; Education, Medical/methods; Education, Medical/standards; Education, Veterinary/methods; Education, Veterinary/standards; Educational Measurement; Humans; Internet; Learning; Students; Teaching/methods  
  Abstract We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a posttest comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web-based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive, though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses. Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/01/15  
  ISSN 0748-321X (Print) 0748-321X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, ERIC and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1194 Serial 2688  
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Author (up) Asmad, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Lopez-Villalobos, N.; Kenyon, P.R.; Pain, S.J.; Blair, H.T. url  openurl
  Title Effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on the growth and reproductive development of male sheep: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production Abbreviated Journal Proc N Z Soc Anim Prod  
  Volume 72 Issue Pages 51-7  
  Keywords Animal Reproduction and Embryology [LL250]; Animal Nutrition (General) [LL500]; growth rate; maternal nutrition; meta-analysis; models; pregnancy; reproduction; sertoli cells; sheep feeding; testes; sheep; Ovis; Bovidae; ruminants; Artiodactyla; ungulates; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; gestation; testicles [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract Nutrient supply to the fetus is one of the crucial factors in the regulation of fetal growth and reproductive development. The effect of maternal nutrition can be exerted at all stages of fetal development, from conception until birth. A meta-analysis of maternal nutrition effects on the growth and reproductive development of male sheep offspring was undertaken using sixteen sheep studies. Eleven studies were included for prediction of the growth curves using a logistic growth model, and eleven studies were included for reproductive development and analysed using a mixed model. The meta-analysis suggested that, male sheep offspring undernourished during gestation had a significantly slower growth and lower testosterone levels while there were no statistically significant effects on testis weight, seminiferous tubule diameter or Sertoli cell count. The lack of a statistical effect on seminiferous tubule diameter and Sertoli cell count may be due to the limited number of studies examining the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on male sheep offspring reproductive development. The meta-analysis reported here suggests that additional studies are warranted to more conclusively determine whether maternal nutrition during pregnancy effects male sheep growth and reproductive development.  
  Address Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. a.kari@massey.ac.nz  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0370-2731 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Web of Science searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1277 Serial 2764  
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Author (up) Asmare, K.; Abayneh, T.; Sibhat, B.; Shiferaw, D.; Szonyi, B.; Krontveit, R.I.; Skjerve, E.; Wieland, B. doi  openurl
  Title Major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume 170 Issue Pages 95-104  
  Keywords Epidemiology; Babesiosis; Ethiopia; Insect Vectors; Ruminants; Theileriasis; Ticks; Trypanosomiasis; Goats; Sheep; Vector  
  Abstract Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. The search was both manual and electronic. The databases used in electronic search were PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL. For most of the vector-borne diseases, the summary was limited to narrative synthesis due to lack of sufficient data. Meta-analysis was computed for trypanosomosis and dermatophilosis while meta-regression and sensitivity analysis was done only for trypanososmosis due to lack of sufficient reports on dermatophilosis. Owing emphasis to their vector role, ticks and flies were summarized narratively at genera/species level. In line with inclusion criteria, out of 106 initially identified research reports 43 peer-reviewed articles passed the quality assessment. Data on 7 vector-borne diseases were extracted at species and region level from each source. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of trypanosomosis was 3.7% with 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8, 4.9), while that of dermatophilosis was 3.1% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.0). The in-between study variance noted for trypanosomosis was statistically significant (p<0.05). Among the three covariates considered for meta-regression, only one (species) fitted the final model significantly (p<0.05) and explained 65.44% of the between studies variance (R2). The prevalence in sheep (5.5%) increased nearly by 34% compared to goats (2.9%). The parasitic presence in blood was documented for babesiosis (3.7% in goats); and anaplasmosis (3.9% in sheep). Serological evidence was retrieved for bluetongue ranging from 34.1% to 46.67% in sheep, and coxiellosis was 10.4% in goats. There was also molecular evidence on the presence of theileriosis in sheep (93%, n=160) and goats (1.9%, n=265). Regarding vectors of veterinary importance, 14 species of ticks in five genera, four species of Glossina and 4 genera of biting flies were reported. Despite the evidence on presence of various vectors including ticks, flies, mosquitoes and midges, studies on vector-borne diseases in Ethiopia are surprisingly rare, especially considering risks related to climate change, which is likely to affect distribution of vectors. Thus better evidence on the current situation is urgently needed in order to prevent spread and to model future distribution scenarios.  
  Address School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Electronic address: kassahun7588@gmail.com. College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia. College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Norwegian Medicines Agency, P. O. Box 6167 Etterstad, N-0602, Oslo, Norway. University of Life Sciences, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Oslo, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/02/19  
  ISSN 1873-6254 (Electronic) 0001-706X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1460 Serial 2916  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Asmare, K.; Abebe, R.; Sheferaw, D.; Krontveit, R.I.; Barbara, W. doi  openurl
  Title Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Veterinary Parasitology Abbreviated Journal Vet Parasitol  
  Volume 218 Issue Pages 73-81  
  Keywords Goats; Sheep; Mange; Prevalence; Skin  
  Abstract Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (P<0.05) and explained 32.87% of the explainable proportion of the heterogeneity noted between studies The prevalence was found to be higher in goats in lowland agro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested.  
  Address School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Electronic address: ka7588@yahoo.com. School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Norwegian Medicines Agency, P.O. Box 63, Kalbakken, N-0901 Oslo, Norway. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. 5689 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/02/14  
  ISSN 1873-2550 (Electronic) 0304-4017 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1405 Serial 2867  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Asmare, K.; Krontveit, R.I.; Ayelet, G.; Sibhat, B.; Godfroid, J.; Skjerve, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Tropical Animal Health and Production Abbreviated Journal Trop Anim Health Prod  
  Volume 46 Issue 8 Pages 1341-50  
  Keywords Cattle; Dairy cattle; Africa  
  Abstract This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia.  
  Address School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 05, Hawassa, Ethiopia, ka7588@yahoo.com.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/09/23  
  ISSN 1573-7438 (Electronic) 0049-4747 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, ISI, Google Scholar and African Journal Online searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1262 Serial 2750  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Asmare, K.; Sheferaw, D.; Aragaw, K.; Abera, M.; Sibhat, B.; Haile, A.; Kiara, H.; Szonyi, B.; Skjerve, E.; Wieland, B. doi  openurl
  Title Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume 160 Issue Pages 68-77  
  Keywords Sheep; Ovine; Goat; Caprine; Haemonchus; Nematoda; Nematode Infections; Prevalence; Meta analysis  
  Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a major health challenge affecting productive and reproductive performance of sheep and goats in Ethiopia. However, there is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at national level. This systematic review provides pooled prevalence estimates and assesses potential predictors of the nematode infections in small ruminants, i.e. helpful in planning interventions or control strategies. The review used 50 animal level datasets retrieved from 24 manuscripts. The studies used data collected from 9407 sheep and 3478 goats. A meta-analytical approach was employed to analyze Effect size (ES). The reported GI nematodes represented eleven genera affecting sheep and goats including: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia/Ostertagia, Strongyloides, Bunostomum, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Trichuris, Cooperia, Skrjabinema and Oesophagostomum. The GI nematodes pooled prevalence estimate in the random effect model was 75.8% (95% CI: 69.6, 80.8). The subgroup analysis revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in the prevalence between different regions and type of diagnostic methods used. 'Postmortem technique' and 'eastern part of the country' were associated with higher GI nematode prevalence and accounted for 68.1% of the between studies heterogeneity. In light of the high parasitic prevalence in all agro-ecologies, the need for strategic intervention is recommended. Meanwhile, data need to be generated for some of the regions where dependable survey reports are lacking.  
  Address School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Electronic address: ka7588@yahoo.com. School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Ethiopia Research Platform, Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Program, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N- 0033 Oslo, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/05/08  
  ISSN 1873-6254 (Electronic) 0001-706X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar, Cab Direct and African Journals Online searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1424 Serial 2883  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Aspirin, G.M.; Gordon-Evans, W.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title What is the evidence? Intervertebral disk disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Vet Med Assoc  
  Volume 237 Issue 10 Pages 1151-1152  
  Keywords Animals; Dog Diseases/diagnosis/surgery; Dogs; Evidence-Based Practice; Female; Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/diagnosis/surgery/veterinary; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/veterinary; Myelography/veterinary; Spinal Cord Compression/diagnosis/surgery/veterinary; Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary  
  Abstract  
  Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. geraldineaspirin@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2010/11/16  
  ISSN 0003-1488 (Print) 0003-1488 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 432 Serial 2341  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; de Greef, K.H.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaun, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience Abbreviated Journal Animal  
  Volume 6 Issue 8 Pages 1275-1289  
  Keywords Animal Feed/analysis; Animals; Body Weight; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Feeding Methods/instrumentation; Female; Housing, Animal; Male; Models, Biological; Regression Analysis; Sex Factors; Species Specificity; Sus scrofa/growth & development; Temperature; Time Factors; Pigs; Swine  
  Abstract A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex modulated the effect of the number of feeder places/pig on FCR (P < 0.05), with a gradual reduction of FCR in entire males and females when increasing feeder space allowance. Genetics tended to modulate the effect of diets' CP content on FCR (P < 0.10). Overall, these results may contribute to the improvement of the welfare and performance of growing-finishing pigs by a better knowledge of the influence of the rearing environment and may help optimize the feeding strategies in current production systems.  
  Address INRA, UMR1079 Systemes d'Elevage Nutrition Animale et Humaine, F-35590 Saint-Gilles, France.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/12/12  
  ISSN 1751-732X (Electronic) 1751-7311 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 860 Serial 2342  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, K.H. de; Edge, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaun, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantitative assessment of the effects of space allowance, group size and floor characteristics on the lying behaviour of growing-finishing pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience Abbreviated Journal Animal  
  Volume 4 Issue 5 Pages 777-783  
  Keywords Animal Welfare [LL810]; Information and Documentation [CC300]; Meat Producing Animals [LL120]; animal housing; animal welfare; body weight; effects; floors; group size; interactions; models; publications; research; slatted floors; space requirements; temperature; pigs; Sus scrofa; Sus; Suidae; Suiformes; Artiodactyla; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; ungulates; eukaryotes; animal rights; flooring; hogs; scientific publications; studies; swine; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract To obtain quantitative information that can be later used in animal welfare modelling, the relationship between the lying behaviour of growing-finishing pigs (initial body weight (BW) between 19 and 87 kg) and different factors related to the housing conditions, with a potential negative effect on their welfare, was studied by means of a meta-analytical approach. Data from 22 experiments reported in 21 scientific publications were collected. The space allowance, expressed on an allometric basis by means of a k-value (m2/BW0.667), the group size (n) and the floor characteristics (fully and partly slatted v. non-slatted floor), as well as their significant two-way interactions were used as fixed effects, and the experiment was used as a random factor to take into account the interexperiment effect. Further regression analyses were performed on the predicted values of observations in order to improve the adjustment of data. A significant quadratic relationship was established between space allowance (k-value, P<0.05; squared k-value, P<0.01) and the percentage of time spent lying. A significant interaction between the k-value and the floor type was also found (P<0.05), showing that the relationship between space allowance and lying behaviour is affected by the presence or absence of slats. Threshold k-values were obtained using broken-line analyses, being about 0.039 for slatted floors and almost double for non-slatted floors. Compared to other studies, these values suggest that the ability to rest as space availability decreases may be compromised before a reduced performance becomes apparent. Group size did not show a significant effect. Additional information should be added to the model, as further data become available, to adjust the proposed parameters as well as to try to include the effect of other important aspects such as that of ambient temperature.  
  Address INRA, UMR1079 Systemes d'Elevage Nutrition Animale et Humaine, F-35590 Saint-Gilles, France. Ludovic.Brossard@rennes.inra.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1751-7311 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?) searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 290 Serial 2344  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, K.H. de; Edge, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaun, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis of the combined effect of housing and environmental enrichment characteristics on the behaviour and performance of pigs Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl Anim Behav Sci  
  Volume 127 Issue 3/4 Pages 73-85  
  Keywords Animal Behaviour [LL300]; Meat Producing Animals [LL120]; analysis; animal behaviour; animal housing; determination; effects; enrichment; estimation; group size; models; productivity; social behaviour; pigs; Sus scrofa; Sus; Suidae; Suiformes; Artiodactyla; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; ungulates; eukaryotes; animal behavior; behavior; hogs; social behavior; swine; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract To quantify the combined effect of housing conditions and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and performance of pigs, a meta-analysis was performed using information from 45 experiments in 42 published manuscripts. Multiple regression models were applied to evaluate the effects of space allowance per pig (k-value; m2/BW0.667), group size (n), floor characteristics (solid, partly, or totally slatted floor), bedding (presence or absence), and the number and presentation sequence of point-source objects (no object, one object, two simultaneous objects, two alternated objects, three or more simultaneous objects or three or more alternated objects) on the general activity, enrichment and object-directed exploratory behaviour, social behaviour, and productive performance. A non-linear relationship between space allowance per pig and time spent sitting and lying was found (P<0.10 and P<0.01 for the k-value and its quadratic term respectively). Total time spent in exploration increased with space allowance per pig when bedding was present (P<0.01), and time spent exploring other pen items decreased with increasing space allowance per pig if no bedding was provided (P<0.001). Total time spent in exploration increased with group size (P<0.001). The lowest predicted total exploration time (least squares mean+or-standard error) was found in the absence of bedding and point-source objects (13+or-3%; P<0.05), and the highest when bedding (18+or-3%) or point-source objects (19+or-3%) were present. Time exploring point-source objects was higher when different objects were provided (P<0.001). Suspended (P<0.05) and deformable (P<0.05) enrichment items increased the time spent manipulating them. Time spent exploring point-source objects was predicted to be higher in the absence of slats and bedding (32+or-6%; P<0.05), and lower when bedding (8+or-9%) or slats (12+or-4%) were present. Time engaged in negative social behaviours decreased in the presence of point-source objects (P<0.01), and increased with group size in the absence of bedding (P<0.001). Time engaged in positive social behaviours tended to decrease in the presence of point-source objects (P<0.10), and when space allowance per pig increased in the absence of bedding (P<0.10). Slight trends towards lower FCR were predicted when point-source objects (P<0.10) and bedding (P=0.10) were present. This information can be utilised in the determination of the general effects of production systems on the welfare of pigs as well as in the development of new production systems.  
  Address INRA, UMR1079 Systemes d'Elevage Nutrition Animale et Humaine, F-35590 Saint-Gilles, France. Xavier.Averos@rennes.inra.fr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?) searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 289 Serial 2343  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ayrle, H.; Mevissen, M.; Kaske, M.; Nathues, H.; Gruetzner, N.; Melzig, M.; Walkenhorst, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Medicinal plants--prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Veterianry Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 89  
  Keywords Cattle; Swine; Calves; Piglets; Gastrointestinal diseases; Respiratory diseases  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets lead to significant economic losses in livestock husbandry. A high morbidity has been reported for diarrhea (calves </= 35%; piglets </= 50%) and for respiratory diseases (calves </= 80%; piglets </= 40%). Despite a highly diverse etiology and pathophysiology of these diseases, treatment with antimicrobials is often the first-line therapy. Multi-antimicrobial resistance in pathogens results in international accordance to strengthen the research in novel treatment options. Medicinal plants bear a potential as alternative or additional treatment. Based on the versatile effects of their plant specific multi-component-compositions, medicinal plants can potentially act as 'multi-target drugs'. Regarding the plurality of medicinal plants, the aim of this systematic review was to identify potential medicinal plant species for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and for modulation of the immune system and inflammation in calves and piglets. RESULTS: Based on nine initial sources including standard textbooks and European ethnoveterinary studies, a total of 223 medicinal plant species related to the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases was identified. A defined search strategy was established using the PRISMA statement to evaluate 30 medicinal plant species starting from 20'000 peer-reviewed articles published in the last 20 years (1994-2014). This strategy led to 418 references (257 in vitro, 84 in vivo and 77 clinical trials, thereof 48 clinical trials in veterinary medicine) to evaluate effects of medicinal plants and their efficacy in detail. The findings indicate that the most promising candidates for gastrointestinal diseases are Allium sativum L., Mentha x piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L.; for diseases of the respiratory tract Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Thymus vulgaris L. and Althea officinalis L. were found most promising, and Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Origanum vulgare L. were identified as best candidates for modulation of the immune system and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Several medicinal plants bear a potential for novel treatment strategies for young livestock. There is a need for further research focused on gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets, and the findings of this review provide a basis on plant selection for future studies.  
  Address Department of Livestock Sciences, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 113, postbox 219, Frick, 5070, Switzerland. hannah.ayrle@fibl.org. Division Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Department Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 124, Bern, 3012, Switzerland. hannah.ayrle@fibl.org. Division Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Department Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 124, Bern, 3012, Switzerland. Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, Zurich, 8057, Switzerland. Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Swine Clinic, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bremgartenstrasse 109a, Bern, 3012, Switzerland. Dahlem Centre of Plant Sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universitat Berlin, Koenigin-Luise-Strasse 2 + 4, Berlin, 14195, Germany. Department of Livestock Sciences, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 113, postbox 219, Frick, 5070, Switzerland.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/06/09  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and Web of Science Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1421 Serial 2880  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Baird-Heinz, H.E.; Van Schoick, A.L.; Pelsor, F.R.; Ranivand, L.; Hungerford, L.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A systematic review of the safety of potassium bromide in dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Vet Med Assoc  
  Volume 240 Issue 6 Pages 705-715  
  Keywords Animals; Anticonvulsants/adverse effects; Bromides/adverse effects; Dog Diseases/chemically induced; Dogs; Potassium Compounds/adverse effects; Seizures/drug therapy/veterinary  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate and summarize available information on the safety of potassium bromide in dogs. DESIGN: Systematic review. SAMPLE: 111 references reporting safety information relevant to potassium bromide published between 1938 and 2011. PROCEDURES: PubMed searches without date limitations were conducted with the terms “potassium bromide” and “sodium bromide” in December 2009 and October 2011. Additional articles were identified through examination of article reference lists and book chapters on seizures in dogs and pharmacology. RESULTS: Reversible neurologic signs were the most consistently reported toxicoses and were generally associated with adjunctive potassium bromide treatment or high serum bromide concentrations. Dermatologic and respiratory abnormalities were rare in dogs. Insufficient information was available to assess the effects of potassium bromide on behavior or to determine the incidence of vomiting, weight gain, polyphagia, pancreatitis, polyuria, polydipsia, or reproductive abnormalities associated with potassium bromide administration. Evidence suggested that administration of potassium bromide with food may alleviate gastrointestinal irritation and that monitoring for polyphagia, thyroid hormone abnormalities, and high serum bromide concentrations may be beneficial. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that potassium bromide is not an appropriate choice for treatment of every dog with seizures and that practitioners should tailor therapeutic regimens and clinical monitoring to each dog. Abrupt dietary changes or fluid therapy may compromise seizure control or increase the likelihood of adverse events. Availability of an appropriately labeled, approved potassium bromide product could provide better assurance for veterinarians and their clients of the quality, safety, and effectiveness of the product for veterinary use.  
  Address Center for Veterinary Medicine, US FDA, 7519 Standish Pl, Rockville, MD 20855, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/03/03  
  ISSN 1943-569X (Electronic) 0003-1488 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 830 Serial 2345  
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