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Author (up) Dohoo, I.R.; Leslie, K.; DesCoteaux, L.; Fredeen, A.; Dowling, P.; Preston, A.; Shewfelt, W. url  openurl
  Title A meta-analysis review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin. 1. Methodology and effects on production Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal Can J Vet Res  
  Volume 67 Issue 4 Pages 241-251  
  Keywords Animals; Body Composition/drug effects; Body Constitution; Canada; Cattle/physiology; Eating/drug effects; Female; Growth Hormone/pharmacology; Milk/chemistry/drug effects/secretion; Parity; Cattle  
  Abstract This manuscript presents the results of a review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) on milk production, milk composition, dry matter intake, and body condition score that was carried out by an expert panel established by the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA). The panel was established by the CVMA in response to a request from Health Canada in 1998 and their report was made public in 1999. A series of meta-analyses was used to combine data on production and nutrition related parameters that were extracted from all randomized clinical trials, which had been published in peer-reviewed journals or which were provided by Health Canada, from the submission by Monsanto for registration of rBST in Canada. A companion paper will present the results of the effects of the drug on measures of health, reproductive performance, and culling parameters. Recombinant bovine somatotropin was found to increase milk production by 11.3% in primiparous cows and 15.6% in multiparous cows; although there was considerable variation from study to study. While some statistically significant effects on milk composition (% butterfat, protein, and lactose) were found, they were all very small. Treatment increased dry matter intake by an average 1.5 kg/day during the treatment period and dry matter intake remained elevated on into the first 60 days of the subsequent lactation. Despite the increase in dry matter intake, treated animals had lower body condition scores at the end of the treatment period, and the reduced scores persisted through until the start of the subsequent lactation.  
  Address Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3. dohoo@upei.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2003/11/19  
  ISSN 0830-9000 (Print) 0830-9000 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes MEDLINE, AGRICOLA, Index Veterinarius and CAB Veterinary Bulletin searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 649 Serial 2393  
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Author (up) Dominguez, M.; Munstermann, S.; de Guindos, I.; Timoney, P. doi  openurl
  Title Equine disease events resulting from international horse movements: systematic review and lessons learned Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume Epublication ahead of print Issue Pages  
  Keywords Horses; Equine; International movement; Disease outbreaks  
  Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: An analysis of the factors leading to equine disease events was used to support the development of international recommendations for mitigating the risk of disease dissemination through sport horse movements (high health, high performance -“HHP” horses). OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was undertaken to identify the factors resulting in equine disease events following international movement of horses to draw lessons in support of the development of international recommendations for the safe movements of a specific subpopulation of horses: the HHP sport horses. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The review covered disease events that occurred from 1995 to 2014, identified from the databases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and international surveillance reports. RESULTS: Overall, 54 disease events were identified, of which 7 were contained in post-arrival quarantine and the others resulted in the introduction of pathogens into importing countries. For 81% of the introductions, the OIE recommendations applicable to the diseases involved had not been complied with. Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade: 88% of the regulated movements that resulted in introductions involved infected horses that showed no clinical signs at the time of import. Biosecurity and management practices in resident equine populations were identified as important mitigating factors in preventing disease spread to the local horse population. CONCLUSIONS: The global increase in international horse movements, if not appropriately regulated and supervised by competent Veterinary Authorities and respective equine industry partners, could potentially lead to increased global spread of infectious equine diseases. Appropriate mitigation measures and compliance with OIE import recommendations for specific diseases can significantly reduce this risk. The recommendations proposed under the HHP approach take into account the mitigation measures identified by this review as important factors in preventing pathogen introduction and spread. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address World Organisation for Animal Health O.I.E, 12 Rue de Prony, 75017, Paris, France. Veterinary Faculty, University of Complutense, Madrid, Spain. Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/10/29  
  ISSN 2042-3306 (Electronic) 0425-1644 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) databses and international surveillance reports searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1377 Serial 2844  
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Author (up) Dore, E.; Pare, J.; Cote, G.; Buczinski, S.; Labrecque, O.; Roy, J.P.; Fecteau, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Risk factors associated with transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to calves within dairy herd: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Vet Intern Med  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 32-45  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Newborn; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/microbiology/transmission; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification; Paratuberculosis/microbiology/transmission; Risk Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Paratuberculosis has a worldwide distribution and many countries have implemented control programs to prevent transmission among and within herds. For these programs to be efficient, knowledge of the risk factors involved in transmission is essential. OBJECTIVES: Systematically review the scientific literature concerning risk factors associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) transmission to dairy calves. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: An electronic search was done in PubMed and CAB to retrieve references relevant to answer at least 1 of the 5 questions concerning neonatal environment, colostrum, milk, housing of calves, and contact of calves with adult cow feces as risk factors in MAP transmission. A 1st screening was done using titles only, then abstracts, and finally full-length articles were reviewed for relevance. From the articles selected, risk factors and presence of a significant association between these risk factors and MAP transmission were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles from 11 different countries and published in 12 different journals were reviewed. The most common study design was cross-sectional (n = 16). The case definition and diagnostic tests used were very variable among studies, but serum ELISA was used in most studies (n = 14). The study unit was the herd in 18 studies. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The contact of calves with adult cow feces is the most important risk factor in MAP transmission. The 5 categories of risk factors are linked to one another.  
  Address Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada. elizabeth.dore@umontreal.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/01/04  
  ISSN 1939-1676 (Electronic) 0891-6640 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and CAB (Abstracts?) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 839 Serial 2394  
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Author (up) Dorea, F.C.; Sanchez, J.; Revie, C.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Veterinary syndromic surveillance: Current initiatives and potential for development Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Vet Med  
  Volume 101 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Animals; Bioterrorism/prevention & control; Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology/veterinary; Data Collection/methods; Databases, Factual; Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control/veterinary; Humans; Public Health Practice; Sentinel Surveillance/veterinary  
  Abstract This paper reviews recent progress in the development of syndromic surveillance systems for veterinary medicine. Peer-reviewed and grey literature were searched in order to identify surveillance systems that explicitly address outbreak detection based on systematic monitoring of animal population data, in any phase of implementation. The review found that developments in veterinary syndromic surveillance are focused not only on animal health, but also on the use of animals as sentinels for public health, representing a further step towards One Medicine. The main sources of information are clinical data from practitioners and laboratory data, but a number of other sources are being explored. Due to limitations inherent in the way data on animal health is collected, the development of veterinary syndromic surveillance initially focused on animal health data collection strategies, analyzing historical data for their potential to support systematic monitoring, or solving problems of data classification and integration. Systems based on passive notification or data transfers are now dealing with sustainability issues. Given the ongoing barriers in availability of data, diagnostic laboratories appear to provide the most readily available data sources for syndromic surveillance in animal health. As the bottlenecks around data source availability are overcome, the next challenge is consolidating data standards for data classification, promoting the integration of different animal health surveillance systems, and also the integration to public health surveillance. Moreover, the outputs of systems for systematic monitoring of animal health data must be directly connected to real-time decision support systems which are increasingly being used for disease management and control.  
  Address Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada. fdorea@upei.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/06/07  
  ISSN 1873-1716 (Electronic) 0167-5877 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed and CAB Abstracts searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1101 Serial 2395  
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Author (up) Dorea, J.R.R.; Danes, M.A.C.; Zanton, G.I.; Armentano, L.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urinary purine derivatives as a tool to estimate dry matter intake in cattle: A meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 8977-8994  
  Keywords Cattle; Beef; Dairy; DMI; Nutirition  
  Abstract The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between dry matter intake (DMI) and urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion, to develop equations to predict DMI and to determine the endogenous excretion of PD for beef and dairy cattle using a meta-analytical approach. To develop the models, 62 published studies for both dairy (45 studies) and beef cattle (17 studies) were compiled. Twenty models were tested using DMI (kg/d) and digestible DMI (dDMI, kg/d) as response variables and PD:creatinine (linear term: PD:C, and quadratic term: PD:C2), allantoin:creatinine (linear term: ALLA:C, and quadratic term: ALLA:C2), metabolic body weight (BW0.75, kg), milk yield (MY, kg/d), and their combination as explanatory variables for dairy and beef (except for MY) cattle. The models developed to predict DMI for dairy cattle were validated using an independent data set from 2 research trials carried out at the University of Wisconsin (trial 1: n = 45; trial 2: n = 50). A second set of models was developed to estimate the endogenous PD excretion. In all evaluated models, the effect of PD (either as PD:C or ALLA:C) was significant, supporting our hypothesis that PD are in fact correlated with DMI. Despite the BW-independent relationship between PD and DMI, the inclusion of BW0.75 in the models with PD:C and ALLA:C as predictors slightly decreased the values of root mean square error (RMSE) and Akaike information criterion for the models of DMI. Our models suggest that both DMI and dDMI can be equally well predicted by PD-related variables; however, predicting DMI seems more useful from a practical and experimental standpoint. The inclusion of MY into the dairy models substantially decreased RMSE and Akaike information criterion values, and further increased the precision of the equations. The model including PD:C, BW0.75, and MY presented greater concordance correlation coefficient (0.93 and 0.63 for trials 1 and 2, respectively) and lower RMSE of prediction (1.90 and 3.35 kg/d for trials 1 and 2, respectively) when tested in the validation data set, emerging as a potentially useful estimator of nutrient intake in dairy cows. Endogenous PD excretion was estimated by the intercept of the linear regression between DMI (g/kg of BW0.75) and PD excretion (mmol/kg of BW0.75) for beef (0.404 mmol/kg of BW0.75) and dairy cattle (0.651 mmol/kg of BW0.75). Based on the very close agreement between our results for beef cattle and the literature, the linear regression appears to be an adequate method to estimate endogenous PD excretion.  
  Address Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706. Department of Animal Science, University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000, Brazil. US Dairy Forage Research Center, 1925 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI 53706. Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706. Electronic address: learment@wisc.edu.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/09/04  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, Scielo, and Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1464 Serial 2919  
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Author (up) Dorey, N.R.; Udell, M.A.; Wynne, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Breed differences in dogs sensitivity to human points: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav Processes  
  Volume 81 Issue 3 Pages 409-415  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Arm; Binomial Distribution; Communication; Dogs/genetics/psychology; Food; Gestures; Humans; Probability; Species Specificity; Dogs  
  Abstract The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research on the behavioral and cognitive abilities of pet dogs, Canis familiaris. The most commonly used experimental paradigm is the object-choice task in which a dog is given a choice of two containers and guided to the reinforced object by human pointing gestures. We review here studies of this type and attempt a meta-analysis of the available data. In the meta-analysis breeds of dogs were grouped into the eight categories of the American Kennel Club, and into four clusters identified by Parker and Ostrander [Parker, H.G., Ostrander, E.A., 2005. Canine genomics and genetics: running with the pack. PLoS Genet. 1, 507-513] on the basis of a genetic analysis. No differences in performance between breeds categorized in either fashion were identified. Rather, all dog breeds appear to be similarly and highly successful in following human points to locate desired food. We suggest this result could be due to the paucity of data available in published studies, and the restricted range of breeds tested.  
  Address University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2009/06/13  
  ISSN 1872-8308 (Electronic) 0376-6357 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Knowledge (Web of Science?), PsycINFO and MEDLINE searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 652 Serial 2396  
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Author (up) Douglas, S.L.; Szyszka, O.; Stoddart, K.; Edwards, S.A.; Kyriazakis, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis to identify animal and management factors influencing gestating sow efficiency Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 92 Issue 12 Pages 5716-26  
  Keywords Pigs; Swine; Sows; Reproduction  
  Abstract A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the reproductive efficiency of gestating sows can provide information on single-factor and interaction effects that may not have been detected in individual studies. This study analyzed the effects of such factors on the number of piglets born alive per litter (BA), piglet birth weight (BiW) and weaning weight (WW), and number of piglets born alive per kilogram of sow feed intake during gestation (BA/FI). A total of 51 papers and 7 data sources were identified for the meta-analysis, out of which 23 papers and 5 sets of production data were useable (a total of 121 treatments). The information gathered included the dependent variables as well as information regarding animal, management, and feed characteristics. While a number of factors were individually significant, the multivariate models identified significant effects only of 1) floor type (P = 0.003), sow BW at the end of gestation (P = 0.002), and housing (stalls vs. loose; P = 0.004) on BA; as floor type and housing were confounded, they were included in 2 separate models. The BA was higher on solid (12.1) in comparison to partly slatted (11.4) and fully slatted floors (10.2); 2) sow gestation environment (P = 0.017) and gestation feed allowance (P = 0.046) on BiW, with BiW of pigs higher for sows kept outdoors rather than indoors (1.75 versus 1.49 kg); 3) parity number (P = 0.003) and feed intake during gestation (P = 0.017) on WW; in addition there was an interaction between parity number x feed ME and parity number x feed CP content of feed during gestation on WW, with the positive effects of feed ME and CP contents seen during early rather than later parities; and 4) floor type (P = 0.019) and feed crude fiber (P = 0.003) for BA/FI with a greater number for those kept on solid floors (5.11) versus partially and fully slatted floors (4.07 and 4.05). The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the efficiency of gestating sows and, importantly, the interactions between these factors. In addition, the effects of some less established factors were noted, such as floor type. The results may contribute towards the improvement of efficiency of gestating sow systems by better understanding of the various factors that influence this.  
  Address School of Agriculture Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle on Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. BPEX, Stoneleigh Park, Kenilworth, Warwickshire, CV8 2TL. School of Agriculture Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle on Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK ilias.kyriazakis@newcastle.ac.uk.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/11/05  
  ISSN 1525-3163 (Electronic) 0021-8812 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Scopus searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1280 Serial 2767  
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Author (up) Downes, M.J.; Dean, R.S.; Stavisky, J.H.; Adams, V.J.; Grindlay, D.J.; Brennan, M.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Methods used to estimate the size of the owned cat and dog population: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication BMC Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal BMC Vet Res  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 121  
  Keywords Animals; Bias (Epidemiology); Cats; Dogs; Epidemiologic Methods/veterinary; Humans; Ownership/statistics & numerical data; Pets  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There are a number of different methods that can be used when estimating the size of the owned cat and dog population in a region, leading to varying population estimates. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the methods that have been used for estimating the sizes of owned cat and dog populations and to assess the biases associated with those methods.A comprehensive, systematic search of seven electronic bibliographic databases and the Google search engine was carried out using a range of different search terms for cats, dogs and population. The inclusion criteria were that the studies had involved owned or pet domestic dogs and/or cats, provided an estimate of the size of the owned dog or cat population, collected raw data on dog and cat ownership, and analysed primary data. Data relating to study methodology were extracted and assessed for biases. RESULTS: Seven papers were included in the final analysis. Collection methods used to select participants in the included studies were: mailed surveys using a commercial list of contacts, door to door surveys, random digit dialled telephone surveys, and randomised telephone surveys using a commercial list of numbers. Analytical and statistical methods used to estimate the pet population size were: mean number of dogs/cats per household multiplied by the number of households in an area, human density multiplied by number of dogs per human, and calculations using predictors of pet ownership. CONCLUSION: The main biases of the studies included selection bias, non-response bias, measurement bias and biases associated with length of sampling time. Careful design and planning of studies is a necessity before executing a study to estimate pet populations.  
  Address Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, Loughborough, UK. martin.downes@nottingham.ac.uk.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2013/06/20  
  ISSN 1746-6148 (Electronic) 1746-6148 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, Zoological Record and Google searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1112 Serial 2397  
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Author (up) Downs, S.H.; Parry, J.; Nunez-Garcia, J.; Abernethy, D.A.; Broughan, J.M.; Cameron, A.R.; Cook, A.J.; Rua-Domenech, R. de la; Goodchild, A.V.; Greiner, M.; Gunn, J.; More, S.J.; Rhodes, S.; Rolfe, S.; Sharp, M.; Upton, P.; Vordermeier, H.M.; Watson, E.; Welsh, M.; Whelan, A.O.; Woolliams, J.A.; Clifton-Hadley, R.S. isbn  openurl
  Title Meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance and modelling of testing strategies for control of bovine tuberculosis in GB Type Book Chapter
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Leipzig, Germany, 23 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 139-153  
  Keywords Dairy Animals [LL110]; Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Animals [LL821]; Diagnosis of Animal Diseases [LL886]; Mathematics and Statistics [ZZ100]; control programmes; cows; dairy cattle; dairy cows; dairy herds; diagnosis; diagnostic techniques; disease control; disease prevalence; disease prevention; disease transmission; epidemiology; estimates; mathematical models; meta-analysis; monitoring; probability; risk; statistical analysis; tuberculosis; cattle; Mycobacterium bovis; UK; Bos; Bovidae; ruminants; Artiodactyla; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; ungulates; eukaryotes; Mycobacterium; Mycobacteriaceae; Corynebacterineae; Actinomycetales; Actinobacteridae; Actinobacteria; Bacteria; prokaryotes; British Isles; Western Europe; Europe; Commonwealth of Nations; Developed Countries; European Union Countries; OECD Countries; cattle; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract The British Government spends over <pounds>100 million per annum on the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Improvement in the control through targeted use of diagnostic tests is one focus of eradication plans. The aims were: (a) through systematic literature review identify primary research with estimates of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for diagnostic tests for bTB in cattle (b) conduct a statistical meta-analysis to estimate test performance, and (c) using the estimates, model and compare different testing strategies. Of 9782 references reviewed, only 261 met agreed criteria and contained performance estimates for one or more of 14 diagnostic tests. The performance of bTB surveillance systems using the estimates of test performance was affected by the historical probability of herd freedom and the risk of introduction of infection. Where the probability of introduction of infection was high, it was difficult to achieve a high target probability of herd freedom from infection.  
  Address Veterinary Laboratories Agency-Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK. s.downs@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Place of Publication Roslin Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Proceedings of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Leipzig, Germany, 23  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-0-948073-99-1 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, Current Contents, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Embase, AGRICOLA and AGRIS searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 310 Serial 2398  
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Author (up) Drewe, J.A.; Hoinville, L.J.; Cook, A.J.; Floyd, T.; Stark, K.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluation of animal and public health surveillance systems: a systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Epidemiology and Infection Abbreviated Journal Epidemiol Infect  
  Volume 140 Issue 4 Pages 575-590  
  Keywords Animals; Communicable Diseases/epidemiology/veterinary; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Evaluation Studies as Topic; Humans; Population Surveillance; Quality Indicators, Health Care  
  Abstract Disease surveillance programmes ought to be evaluated regularly to ensure they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. Evaluation of human and animal health surveillance programmes around the world is currently not standardized and therefore inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review was to review surveillance system attributes and the methods used for their assessment, together with the strengths and weaknesses of existing frameworks for evaluating surveillance in animal health, public health and allied disciplines. Information from 99 articles describing the evaluation of 101 surveillance systems was examined. A wide range of approaches for assessing 23 different system attributes was identified although most evaluations addressed only one or two attributes and comprehensive evaluations were uncommon. Surveillance objectives were often not stated in the articles reviewed and so the reasons for choosing certain attributes for assessment were not always apparent. This has the potential to introduce misleading results in surveillance evaluation. Due to the wide range of system attributes that may be assessed, methods should be explored which collapse these down into a small number of grouped characteristics by focusing on the relationships between attributes and their links to the objectives of the surveillance system and the evaluation. A generic and comprehensive evaluation framework could then be developed consisting of a limited number of common attributes together with several sets of secondary attributes which could be selected depending on the disease or range of diseases under surveillance and the purpose of the surveillance. Economic evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance evaluation process. This would provide a significant benefit to decision-makers who often need to make choices based on limited or diminishing resources.  
  Address Centre for Emerging, Endemic and Exotic Diseases, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, UK. jdrewe@rvc.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/11/15  
  ISSN 1469-4409 (Electronic) 0950-2688 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science and Google searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 653 Serial 2399  
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Author (up) Duffield, T.F.; Merrill, J.K.; Bagg, R.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meta-analysis of the effects of monensin in beef cattle on feed efficiency, body weight gain, and dry matter intake Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J Anim Sci  
  Volume 90 Issue 12 Pages 4583-4592  
  Keywords Animal Feed/analysis; Animals; Cattle/physiology; Diet/veterinary; Feeding Behavior/drug effects; Monensin/pharmacology; Proton Ionophores/pharmacology; Time Factors; Weight Gain/drug effects; Cattle  
  Abstract A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin on growing and finishing beef cattle was conducted after a search of the literature. A total of 40 peer-reviewed articles and 24 additional trial reports with monensin feeding in beef cattle were selected, after meeting apriori quality criteria. Data for each trial were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis software in STATA. Estimated effect size of monensin was calculated for feed efficiency (FE), ADG, and DMI. Monensin use in growing and finishing beef cattle reduced DMI (P < 0.001) and improved both ADG (P < 0.001) and FE (P < 0.001). The average concentration of monensin in feed across studies was 28.1 mg/kg feed (100% DM) and this resulted in approximately a 6.4% (but only 2.5 to 3.5% in the last 2 decades) increase in FE, 3% decrease in DMI, and 2.5% increase in ADG. All 3 outcomes displayed moderate and significant heterogeneity of monensin response (I(2), which is a measure of variation beyond chance, = 29% for FE, 42% for DMI, and 23% for ADG); therefore, random effects models were used for those outcomes. There were no single influential studies that overweighted the findings for any outcome. Meta-regression analysis of the effect sizes obtained from these data showed that dietary factors, dose, and study design were influential in modifying effect size of monensin treatment. Use of corn silage in the diet influenced the effect size of monensin for DMI and FE, with diets containing corn silage resulting in a greater improvement in FE and a larger effect on reducing DMI. Studies conducted to assess multiple doses of monensin showed similar effects to the use of corn silage in the diet. Studies conducted in the United States or with higher ADG in control animals (>1.17 kg/d) showed less effect of monensin on ADG. Pen-level studies showed a greater monensin increase on ADG than did those conducted on individual animals. Linear effect of monensin dose was observed for FE, DMI, and ADG outcomes, with greater effects on improving FE and reducing DMI with larger doses of monensin but lesser improvement in ADG with increasing dose. These findings confirm that monensin improves FE in growing and finishing beef cattle, and that this effect is linear with dose.  
  Address Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1. tduffiel@ovc.uoguelph.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2012/08/04  
  ISSN 1525-3163 (Electronic) 0021-8812 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, AGRICOLA, CAB (Abstracts?) and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 1120 Serial 2400  
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Author (up) Duffield, T.F.; Rabiee, A.R.; Lean, I.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin in lactating dairy cattle. Part 3. Health and reproduction Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 91 Issue 6 Pages 2328-2341  
  Keywords Animal Welfare; Animals; Cattle/physiology; Cattle Diseases/prevention & control; Female; Health Status; Ionophores/adverse effects/pharmacology; Lactation/drug effects/physiology; Monensin/adverse effects/pharmacology; Reproduction/drug effects/physiology; Cattle  
  Abstract A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin on health and reproductive outcomes in dairy cattle was conducted. A total of 16 papers were identified with sufficient data and quality to evaluate health and reproductive outcomes for monensin. The available trials provided approximately 9,500 cows with sufficient data for analysis. This provided good statistical power to examine the effects of monensin on health and reproduction. Over all the trials analyzed, monensin decreased the risk of ketosis [relative risk (RR) = 0.75], displaced abomasums (RR = 0.75), and mastitis (RR = 0.91). No significant effects of monensin were found for milk fever, lameness, dystocia, retained placenta, or metritis. Monensin had no effect on first-service conception risk (RR = 0.97) or days to pregnancy (hazard ratio = 0.93). However, the impact of monensin on dystocia, retained placenta, and metritis was heterogeneous for all 3 outcome measures and random effect models were utilized. Causes of the heterogeneity were explored with meta-regression. Days of treatment with monensin before calving increased the risk of dystocia. Delivery method of monensin influenced the incidence of retained placenta and metritis, with risk being lower with controlled release capsule treatment compared with delivery in either topdress or in a total mixed ration. Days of treatment before calving also influenced retained placenta with an increase in risk with more days treated before calving. Improvements in ketosis, displaced abomasums, and mastitis with monensin were achieved. Exposure to prolonged treatment in the dry period with monensin may increase the risk of dystocia and retained placenta.  
  Address Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1. tduffiel@uoguelph.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2008/05/20  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, AGRICOLA, CAB (Abstracts?) and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 655 Serial 2401  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Duffield, T.F.; Rabiee, A.R.; Lean, I.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin in lactating dairy cattle. Part 2. Production effects Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 91 Issue 4 Pages 1347-1360  
  Keywords Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Body Constitution/drug effects; Body Weight/drug effects; Cattle/metabolism; Dairying; Diet/veterinary; Eating/drug effects; Fats/analysis; Female; Ionophores/pharmacology; Lactation/drug effects; Milk/chemistry/drug effects; Milk Proteins/analysis/drug effects; Monensin/pharmacology; Cattle  
  Abstract A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin on production outcomes in dairy cattle was conducted using the 36 papers and 77 trials that contained eligible data. Statistical analyses were conducted in STATA and included a consideration of fixed or random effects models, assessment of publication bias, and impact of influential studies. Meta-regression was used to investigate sources of heterogeneity of response. There were 71 trials containing data from 255 trial sites and 9,677 cows examining milk production and composition. Monensin use in lactating dairy cattle significantly decreased dry matter intake by 0.3 kg, but increased milk yield by 0.7 kg and improved milk production efficiency by 2.5%. Monensin decreased milk fat percentage 0.13%, but had no effect on milk fat yield; however, there was significant heterogeneity between studies for both of these responses. Milk protein percentage was decreased 0.03%, but protein yield was increased 0.016 kg/d with treatment. Monensin had no effect on milk lactose percentage. Monensin increased body condition score by 0.03 and similarly improved body weight change (0.06 kg/d). Analysis of milk fatty acid profile data indicated that monensin was associated with a reduction of short-chain fatty acids (from 1 to 12% reduction) and stearic acid (-7.8%). The impact of monensin on linoleic and linolenic acids was variable, but monensin significantly increased conjugated linoleic acid (22%). Meta-regression of the effect of monensin on milk component percentages and yields indicated an influence of delivery method, stage of lactation, dose, and diet. Increasing concentrations of C18:1 in the diet enhanced the effect of monensin on decreasing milk fat yield, whereas increasing the rumen peptide balance increased the effect of monensin on milk protein yield. These findings indicate a benefit of monensin for improving milk production efficiency while maintaining body condition. The effect of monensin on milk fat percentage and yield was influenced by diet.  
  Address Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada. tduffiel@uoguelph.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2008/03/20  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, AGRICOLA, CAB (Abstracts?) and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 656 Serial 2402  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Duffield, T.F.; Rabiee, A.R.; Lean, I.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin in lactating dairy cattle. Part 1. Metabolic effects Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 91 Issue 4 Pages 1334-1346  
  Keywords 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/blood; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Blood Glucose/analysis/drug effects; Cattle/blood/metabolism; Dairying; Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/blood; Female; Ionophores/pharmacology; Monensin/pharmacology; Cattle  
  Abstract A meta-analysis of the impact of monensin on metabolism of dairy cattle was conducted following a search of the literature. A total of 59 studies with monensin feeding in dairy cattle were identified in which 30 papers and 45 trials contained metabolic data. The beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) data were obtained from over 4,000 cows and 115 trial sites. Data for each trial were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis software in Stata. Estimated effect sizes of monensin were calculated on blood concentrations of BHBA, acetoacetate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, cholesterol, urea, calcium, insulin, and milk urea. Monensin use in lactating dairy cattle significantly reduced blood concentrations of BHBA 13%, acetoacetate 14%, and NEFA 7%. Monensin increased glucose 3% and urea 6%. Monensin had no significant effect on cholesterol, calcium, milk urea, or insulin. Heterogeneity was significant for BHBA and cholesterol [I(2) (measure of variation beyond chance) = 37 and 54%, respectively]; therefore, random effects models were used for those analytes. Publication bias existed with the monensin effect on BHBA, with a tendency for studies to be published if there was a significant reduction in this ketone. Meta-regression analysis of the effect sizes obtained from the metabolic data showed that method of delivery, timing of administration, stage of lactation, and diet were influential in modifying effect size of monensin treatment. Use of top dress or delivery via a controlled release capsule reduced the magnitude of effect on BHBA (coefficient +0.353); however, top dress use compared with controlled release capsule or total mixed ration enhanced the monensin effect on glucose (coefficient +0.296). There was a greater impact with monensin on reducing BHBA in early lactation (coefficient -0.151) and in pasture-based trials (coefficient -0.194). Use of monensin in both the pre- and postcalving periods was associated with an enhanced impact on NEFA (coefficient -0.254). Monensin had less impact on serum glucose in the pre-calving time period (coefficient -0.237). These findings demonstrate an improvement in the energy metabolism of dairy cows supplemented with monensin.  
  Address Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada. tduffiel@uoguelph.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2008/03/20  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, AGRICOLA, CAB (Abstracts?) and Google Scholar searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 657 Serial 2403  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Dufour, S.; Frechette, A.; Barkema, H.W.; Mussell, A.; Scholl, D.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Invited review: effect of udder health management practices on herd somatic cell count Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Dairy Science Abbreviated Journal J Dairy Sci  
  Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 563-579  
  Keywords Algorithms; Animals; Cattle; Cell Count/veterinary; Dairying/instrumentation/methods; Female; Mammary Glands, Animal/physiology; Milk/cytology/secretion  
  Abstract A systematic review of the scientific literature on relationships between management practices used on dairy farms and herd somatic cell count (SCC) was undertaken to distinguish those management practices that have been consistently shown to be associated with herd SCC from those lacking evidence of association. Relevant literature was identified using a combination of database searches (PubMed, Medline, CAB, Agricola, and Web of Science) and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, a manuscript had to be published after 1979 in French, English, or Dutch; study design had to be other than case report or case series; herds studied had to be composed of >/= 40 milking cows producing on average >/= 7,000kg of milk in 305 d; interventions studied had to be management practices applied at the herd level and used as udder health control strategies; and SCC had to be measured using electronic cell counting methods. The 36 manuscripts selected were mainly observational cross-sectional studies; 8 manuscripts dealt exclusively with automatic milking systems and 4 with management of calves and heifers and its effect on SCC in early lactation heifers. Most practices having consistent associations with SCC were related to milking procedures: wearing gloves during milking, using automatic take-offs, using postmilking teat dipping, milking problem cows last, yearly inspection of the milking system, and use of a technique to keep cows standing following milking; all were consistently associated with lower herd SCC. Other practices associated with lower SCC were the use of a freestall system, sand bedding, cleaning the calving pen after each calving, surveillance of dry-cow udders for mastitis, use of blanket dry-cow therapy, parenteral selenium supplementation, udder hair management, and frequent use of the California Mastitis Test. Regarding SCC of heifers, most of the consistent associations reported were related to interventions made during the peripartum period. Studies on automatic milking systems have frequently reported elevation of the herd SCC following transition to the new system. These elevations seemed to be mediated both by the lack of monitoring of chronically infected cows and by an elevated incidence of intramammary infections. By assembling the results reported in many different studies, this review generates a more comprehensive understanding of the management practices influencing SCC and highlights areas of SCC control knowledge that lack evidence of effectiveness.  
  Address Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, C.P. 5000, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec, J2S 7C6, Canada. simon.dufour@umontreal.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2011/01/25  
  ISSN 1525-3198 (Electronic) 0022-0302 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, MEDLINE, CAB, AGRICOLA and Web of Science searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 658 Serial 2404  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Duncan, A.J.; Gunn, G.J.; Humphry, R.W. doi  openurl
  Title Difficulties arising from the variety of testing schemes used for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Veterinary Record Abbreviated Journal Vet Rec  
  Volume 178 Issue 12 Pages 292  
  Keywords Cattle; Bovine; Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV); Epidemiology; Eradication schemes  
  Abstract Globally, the eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is still in its infancy, but eradication has been, or is being, adopted by several countries or regions. Comparisons between countries' schemes allow others to assess best practice, and aggregating published results from eradication schemes provides greater statistical power when analysing data. Aggregating data requires that results derived from different testing schemes be calibrated against one another. The authors aimed to evaluate whether relationships between published BVDV test results could be created and present the outcome of a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The results are tabulated, providing a summary of papers where there is potential cross-calibration and a summary of the obstacles preventing such data aggregation. Although differences in measuring BVDV present barriers to academic progress, they may also affect progress within individual eradication schemes. The authors examined the time taken to retest following an initial antibody BVDV test in the Scottish eradication scheme. The authors demonstrate that retesting occurred quicker if the initial not negative test was from blood rather than milk samples. Such differences in the response of farmers/veterinarians to tests may be of interest to the design of future schemes.  
  Address Inverness College UHI, 1 Inverness Campus, Inverness IV2 5NA, UK Epidemiology Research Unit, SRUC (Scotland's Rural College), Drummondhill, Stratherrick Road, Inverness IV2 4JZ, UK. Epidemiology Research Unit, SRUC (Scotland's Rural College), Drummondhill, Stratherrick Road, Inverness IV2 4JZ, UK.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2016/02/13  
  ISSN 2042-7670 (Electronic) 0042-4900 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science (Web of Knowledge) searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1406 Serial 2868  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Dunkel, B.; Johns, I.C. doi  openurl
  Title Antimicrobial use in critically ill horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001) Abbreviated Journal J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio)  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 89-100  
  Keywords Horses; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To discuss controversies surrounding antimicrobial use in critically ill horses. DATA SOURCES: PubMed searches from 1970-present for terms including, but not limited to: “horse,” “foal,” “antimicrobial,” “prophylaxis,” “infection,” “surgery,” “sepsis,” and “antimicrobial resistance.” HUMAN DATA SYNTHESIS: Increasing bacterial antimicrobial resistance has changed first-line antimicrobial choices and prompted shortening of the duration of prophylactic and therapeutic treatment. The need to decrease bacterial resistance development to critically important antimicrobials has been highlighted. VETERINARY DATA SYNTHESIS: Veterinary medicine has followed a similar trend but often without a high-level evidence. Common dilemmas include diseases in which the theoretically most effective drug is a reserved antimicrobial, the inability to differentiate infectious from noninfectious disease, the duration and necessity of prophylactic antimicrobials and use of antimicrobials in primary gastrointestinal disease. These problems are illustrated using examples of purulent infections, neonatal sepsis, colic surgery, and treatment of colitis. Although enrofloxacin, cephalosporins, and doxycycline, in contrast to gentamicin, reach therapeutic concentrations within the lungs of healthy horses, the first two should not be used as first line treatment due to their reserved status. Due to the high risk of bacterial sepsis, antimicrobial treatment remains indispensable in compromised neonatal foals but shortening the length of antimicrobial treatment might be prudent. One prospective randomized study demonstrated no difference between 3 and 5 days of perioperative antimicrobial treatment in colic surgery but shorter durations were not evaluated. High-level evidence to recommend antimicrobial treatment of adult horses with undifferentiated diarrhea does not exist. CONCLUSIONS: Few evidence-based recommendations can be made. Commonly used antimicrobial combinations remain the mainstay for treating purulent infections. Antimicrobial treatment for compromised foals should not extend beyond recovery. Continuation of prophylactic antimicrobials >3 days is likely unnecessary after colic surgery; shorter durations might be equally effective. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in adult horses with diarrhea is unlikely to be beneficial.  
  Address Department of Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertforshire, United Kingdom, United Kingdom.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2015/01/15  
  ISSN 1476-4431 (Electronic) 1476-4431 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010. Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1348 Serial 2821  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Dzikamunhenga, R.S.; Anthony, R.; Coetzee, J.; Gould, S.; Johnson, A.; Karriker, L.; McKean, J.; Millman, S.T.; Niekamp, S.R.; O'Connor, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pain management in the neonatal piglet during routine management procedures. Part 1: a systematic review of randomized and non-randomized intervention studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Animal Health Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Anim Health Res Rev  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 14-38  
  Keywords Pigs; Swine; Analgesia  
  Abstract Routine procedures carried out on piglets (i.e. castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and ear notching) are considered painful. Unfortunately the efficacy of current pain mitigation modalities is poorly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the existing primary scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of pain management interventions used for routine procedures on piglets. The review question was, 'In piglets under twenty-eight days old, undergoing castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and/or methods of identification that involve cutting of the ear tissue, what is the effect of pain mitigation compared with no pain mitigation on behavioral and non-behavioral outcomes that indicate procedural pain and post-procedural pain?' A review protocol was designed a priori. Data sources used were Agricola (EBSCO), CAB Abstracts (Thomson Reuters), PubMed, Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), BIOSIS Previews (Thomson Reuters), and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. No restrictions on year of publication or language were placed on the search. Eligible studies assessed an intervention designed to mitigate the pain of the procedures of interest and included a comparison group that did not receive an intervention. Eligible non-English studies were translated using a translation service. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance using pre-defined questions. Data were extracted from relevant articles onto pre-defined forms. From the 2203 retrieved citations forty publications, containing 52 studies met the eligibility criteria. In 40 studies, piglets underwent castration only. In seven studies, piglets underwent tail docking only. In one study, piglets underwent teeth clipping only, and in one study piglets underwent ear notching only. Three studies used multiple procedures. Thirty-two trial arms assessed general anesthesia protocols, 30 trial arms assessed local anesthetic protocols, and 28 trial arms assessed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protocols. Forty-one trial arms were controls where piglets received either placebo or no treatment. Forty-five outcomes were extracted from the studies, however only the results from studies that assessed cortisol (six studies), beta -endorphins (one study), vocalisations (nine studies), and pain-related behaviors (nine studies) are reported. Other outcomes were reported in only one or two studies. Confident decision making will likely be difficult based on this body of work because lack of comprehensive reporting precludes calculation of the magnitude of pain mitigation for most outcomes.  
  Address Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA. oconnor@iastate.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1466-2523 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science, PubMed, Agricola, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text and Swine Information Library searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 2642 Serial 2742  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare(AHAW) url  doi
openurl 
  Title Scientific opinion on the electrical requirements for waterbath stunning equipment applicable for poultry Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication EFSA Journal Abbreviated Journal EFSA Journal  
  Volume 10 Issue 6 Pages  
  Keywords Meat Producing Animals [LL120]; Animal Slaughter [LL190]; Techniques and Methodology [ZZ900]; abattoirs; efficacy; electric current; electroencephalography; electronarcosis; equipment; hygiene; literature reviews; measurement; methodology; poultry; reviews; stunning; surveillance; systematic reviews; fowls; European Union Countries; Europe; Gallus gallus; Gallus; Phasianidae; Galliformes; birds; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; chickens; domesticated birds; EEG; electrical anaesthesia; electrical current; electrical stunning; methods; metrology; slaughterhouses; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract The Commission requested that EFSA review relevant new scientific references on electrical stunning of poultry and to recommend, if necessary, new electrical requirements applicable for waterbath stunning equipment. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine those electrical parameters that would deliver an effective stun so that birds would be rendered unconscious and insensible until death. Inspection data from slaughterhouse inspections conducted both in Member States in and non-Member States were included. Many of the published studies did not allow a comprehensive analysis due to different study designs and incomplete data. There are few observational studies in abattoirs to determine the numbers of birds that are effectively stunned, however, the inspection data from the Food and Veterinary Office (FVO) did not identify major problems but, for practical reasons, they used non-EEG (electro-encephalogram) methods to ascertain the effectiveness of a stun. At the present time, an EEG is the most reliable indicator of unconsciousness and insensibility. Clinical somatosensory indicators are not as reliable. The aim of a stunning system is to achieve a 100% effective stun, and the most effective electrical parameters in use can achieve an effectiveness of up to 96% as measured using EEG ascertainment methods (100% were reported as unconscious using non-EEG methods). It is recommended that the Regulation should indicate minimum current for each bird, frequency and current type as well as the wave characteristics – duty cycle and waveform. There should be better surveillance and monitoring of the electrical parameters in use at abattoirs and, in addition, methods that allow the accurate measurement of actual electrical current flowing through each bird should be further developed. Research on effective stunning should be validated by the measurement of EEG activity and related to clinical measures that are easier to use in practice.  
  Address European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy. ahaw@efsa.europa.eu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1831-4732 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes CAB Abstracts, CCC, FSTA, Web of Science and PubMed searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 534 Serial 2405  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Egea-Serrano, A.; Relyea, R.A.; Tejedo, M.; Torralva, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Understanding of the impact of chemicals on amphibians: a meta-analytic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 2 Issue 7 Pages 1382-1397  
  Keywords Toxicology and Poisoning (Wild Animals) [YY900]; exposure; heavy metals; meta-analysis; nitrogenous compounds; pesticides; phosphorus; pollutants; reviews; survival; toxic substances; wastewater; wild animals; Amphibia; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes; poisons; waste water; amphibians; [Indexed using CAB Thesaurus terms]  
  Abstract Many studies have assessed the impact of different pollutants on amphibians across a variety of experimental venues (laboratory, mesocosm, and enclosure conditions). Past reviews, using vote-counting methods, have described pollution as one of the major threats faced by amphibians. However, vote-counting methods lack strong statistical power, do not permit one to determine the magnitudes of effects, and do not compare responses among predefined groups. To address these challenges, we conducted a meta-analysis of experimental studies that measured the effects of different chemical pollutants (nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds, pesticides, road deicers, heavy metals, and other wastewater contaminants) at environmentally relevant concentrations on amphibian survival, mass, time to hatching, time to metamorphosis, and frequency of abnormalities. The overall effect size of pollutant exposure was a medium decrease in amphibian survival and mass and a large increase in abnormality frequency. This translates to a 14.3% decrease in survival, a 7.5% decrease in mass, and a 535% increase in abnormality frequency across all studies. In contrast, we found no overall effect of pollutants on time to hatching and time to metamorphosis. We also found that effect sizes differed among experimental venues and among types of pollutants, but we only detected weak differences among amphibian families. These results suggest that variation in sensitivity to contaminants is generally independent of phylogeny. Some publication bias (i.e., selective reporting) was detected, but only for mass and the interaction effect size among stressors. We conclude that the overall impact of pollution on amphibians is moderately to largely negative. This implies that pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations pose an important threat to amphibians and may play a role in their present global decline.  
  Address Facultad de Biologia, Departamento de Zoologia y Antropologia Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain. aegea@um.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, ScienceDirect and Scirus searched. Database record copyright CAB International 2010 Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ douglas.grindlay @ 887 Serial 2406  
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