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Author Asmare, K.; Abayneh, T.; Sibhat, B.; Shiferaw, D.; Szonyi, B.; Krontveit, R.I.; Skjerve, E.; Wieland, B. doi  openurl
  Title Major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal (up) Acta Trop  
  Volume 170 Issue Pages 95-104  
  Keywords Epidemiology; Babesiosis; Ethiopia; Insect Vectors; Ruminants; Theileriasis; Ticks; Trypanosomiasis; Goats; Sheep; Vector  
  Abstract Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. The search was both manual and electronic. The databases used in electronic search were PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL. For most of the vector-borne diseases, the summary was limited to narrative synthesis due to lack of sufficient data. Meta-analysis was computed for trypanosomosis and dermatophilosis while meta-regression and sensitivity analysis was done only for trypanososmosis due to lack of sufficient reports on dermatophilosis. Owing emphasis to their vector role, ticks and flies were summarized narratively at genera/species level. In line with inclusion criteria, out of 106 initially identified research reports 43 peer-reviewed articles passed the quality assessment. Data on 7 vector-borne diseases were extracted at species and region level from each source. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of trypanosomosis was 3.7% with 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8, 4.9), while that of dermatophilosis was 3.1% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.0). The in-between study variance noted for trypanosomosis was statistically significant (p<0.05). Among the three covariates considered for meta-regression, only one (species) fitted the final model significantly (p<0.05) and explained 65.44% of the between studies variance (R2). The prevalence in sheep (5.5%) increased nearly by 34% compared to goats (2.9%). The parasitic presence in blood was documented for babesiosis (3.7% in goats); and anaplasmosis (3.9% in sheep). Serological evidence was retrieved for bluetongue ranging from 34.1% to 46.67% in sheep, and coxiellosis was 10.4% in goats. There was also molecular evidence on the presence of theileriosis in sheep (93%, n=160) and goats (1.9%, n=265). Regarding vectors of veterinary importance, 14 species of ticks in five genera, four species of Glossina and 4 genera of biting flies were reported. Despite the evidence on presence of various vectors including ticks, flies, mosquitoes and midges, studies on vector-borne diseases in Ethiopia are surprisingly rare, especially considering risks related to climate change, which is likely to affect distribution of vectors. Thus better evidence on the current situation is urgently needed in order to prevent spread and to model future distribution scenarios.  
  Address School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Electronic address: kassahun7588@gmail.com. College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia. College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 005, Hawassa, Ethiopia. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Norwegian Medicines Agency, P. O. Box 6167 Etterstad, N-0602, Oslo, Norway. University of Life Sciences, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Oslo, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2017/02/19  
  ISSN 1873-6254 (Electronic) 0001-706X (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL searched Approved yes  
  Call Number UoN @ rachel.dean @ 1460 Serial 2916  
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